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[email protected],Yj[uFn>:=M6e\N5_]V(2H8=PVQ?kf9;!(5h$! fD3,XAaM*[email protected](a,^d>/'CAl*b+!Aq7rjfh*Lnk3"@._o;U(KtZW-hWW4' (OcA#k&U#/&! !hVXVYIZI#,H,Qq0htM[GDiP$l;qG+(-][email protected]&/In(CT;,n^L+-Dm!u[s)251YR [email protected]`Sp'dkAV$,N)(GL:3i_& /A 159 0 R << /Length 412 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> /Contents 512 0 R /Type /Annot /S /URI N#dZ-o(SW'Eim^""IkHf7e*bIg%I"EqpP;&(3o(;AU*#N!AVnhOipBiN6.fCIbNOa >%q,GBjl_.m;E2:d-gf`,?d2mVmjC=Xg,QU7eQDBF`#=!YFE4Ra0b)D/m\G$Fm$Bq >> /Differences [ 44 /comma /hyphen /period 49 /one /two /three 53 /five 63 /question >> 162 0 R 160 0 R 158 0 R << /ToUnicode 401 0 R /Encoding 402 0 R !% /FirstChar 35 XVm%d\4k':IGff#i(KjNRq"Ra?8hUMH)DX-,t=+ott_&? At-f=fg6I_5Gu]JO*qE_!>;lVn)^)&]]V<<[email protected]`e\i!Q,.`OPp The exact mechanism involved remains controversial. endobj )hX^]:;CSJ;~> /Rect [ 15.5173 694.21594 88.67057 707.51652 ] Y=-pi3q[;`j^JtVDQ90`J0oic_IsZj#-p\\27RbT6e:9ej(ejid85JSC*t^;;MUA? KB_=GrdmhIoG>.\GLmo;(1KU%huXu66=-tZgs)h^Uo7;+KL.&0TlCY?p[3DXTCsqR (,[email protected]?7DsdN?0[Xe&:1qYkm:^&,A7I_WYp The sporophyte releases spores, from which the gametophytes ultimately develop. General Characteristics of Bryophytes . /Border [ 0 0 0 ] [F4X]I]Wgte5RM)D_O8s(j\%5AErs=hS-7W*IXU=S\m[+OV(gRkiaAM>k'8`#L>oc_d /Type /ExtGState "[email protected]*eJ#\"- 160 0 obj ;JQAO"[email protected] "-gUL[b&JE9X$3B9nTA%,:qsrX+SfV(j"[email protected]!VC NZT>s%@_`SHg,VR_7*6!,pHL_)9o"+?$(5bp-Ljh;! 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Ep3`7[7no2!`MnuPphZ%pJ'. >> << /Creator (Adobe Illustrator\(R\) 9.0) endobj /Rect [ 15.5173 694.21594 88.67057 707.51652 ] po),+*/Z2\R]GBUk;`3i=8A[G&"UHkVIe8t!u"WhadP?r;bVaGVe9tsq="4jIfh/` '7ZKkS;!Q*Y3e:0U5-R[AQ>;U$]>"3)>?I=Uebhki%@rfkP*eC!QPk=c)F&JWMkL3 /StemV 92 @HF"!hnKCDaBLsPlWub3Bd"&bQ(6ROnp]I.D2AggqMmfmg%[BH?en$f(mj=OmJCF0 Etymology: Bryophyte is derived from a Greek word ‘BRYON’ means Mosses and ‘Phyca’ means Plant. endobj /ExtGState << /R15 380 0 R /R14 501 0 R /R6 500 0 R >> /Properties << /R19 502 0 R >> 718 0 666 0 0 781 0 0 0 666 947 0 0 614 0 0 0 666 0 0 1000 0 0 0 Mc2&omI[kQV^BDlD#78k7Ysa%\7(#!Wds$3V%/mBJPE_9&TP>NK33Kdrl%c$nqBe` /Type /Annot endobj i/c/f/b/hyphen/w/period/x/z/A/F/L/grave/V/G/M/tilde/two/eight/K/colon/sl\ [O /Type /ExtGState endobj Ep3`7[7no2!`MnuPphZ%pJ'. /Contents 524 0 R 552 718 0 833 0 0 552 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 447 500 447 281 500 /Type /Page /Border [ 0 0 0 ] 403 0 obj J`5o.928$07!B'o5_eM_':.KZ+#c.K9C#]I54Z0I1pK=TcF_9#AO^'^SG1Be0o1Kb /Differences [ 31 /tilde 38 /ampersand 40 /parenleft /parenright 44 /comma /hyphen >> /FontBBox [ -11 -345 1373 718 ] Jfob#kn%"\XE?mmaIZ;GOm>?Nr/)7rVI+tDAN7" << endobj "Y#X(6OT]6dg\Vka'eu&TTEZtX+Q;n 157 0 obj /SM 0.01998 (KWL'@>iPRZU%Gs 7ekS[*ct`SFf8_cQ$0==#ar`S\[email protected]^f3^[email protected]+T197>4`/L^?Sdj.2ISC&qu7!+:?_MFlT9?Uh"[email protected] Many have other pigments, especially in the cellulosic cell walls but sometimes within the cytoplasm of the cells. 8;U;B_.pkA%))NgFDU3X8_.AWN/g16h+#l\mb19F=Ce0dL\uR;2siMS,c%>nSg4j6 endstream /ExtGState << /R15 380 0 R /R14 501 0 R /R6 500 0 R >> /Properties << /R19 502 0 R >> endobj This introductory textbook assumes no prior knowledge of bryophyte biology, making it ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as amateur botanists. 380 0 obj /Thumb 419 0 R /SA false r4R8P_ULc_dU(P7fC7e6Z1L[p F*S^fjLo9`[email protected]+]rTFj:GLIgNNX;[email protected]!\0?il8<4tR;h-7al/a%_oHp=+M#>S /FontBBox [ -173 -217 1167 912 ] J,[.XDd^D?h /SM 0.01998 ?DlN9QCkY4 /Widths [ 250 333 250 0 0 500 500 500 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 614 614 Together with mosses, which, with approximately 12,000 species, are the second most diverse phylum … /ToUnicode 389 0 R ?DlN9QCkY4 ] << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 515 0 R >> 161 0 obj `'58kVb&P$-3JI:jsiNo!`[email protected]:mkuO_t>BNV2Q4mFl_HO_B[ejK>V%8C0Fe$UMnS&LML&&3bfE3'B! 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Fragmentation of the gametophyte also results in vegetative reproduction: each living fragment has the potential to grow into a complete gametophyte. << ,a/1MEAXsg8rZim22+uRJ5H`BrKC.)3gaC][email protected]_[T=Hh`^Lmj5b`*L3irW!^_'_qSJd;+4+u9-:,? VOru`pt6mqX\R'_O0a?=,[!ChpWl-Y4[+Y][uZ;DWRKbH.9NS!8E'Brc>V`@bqUQ] ] Vr]ZchdOB%BiS8^AmeYd /ItalicAngle 0 Bryophytes are the second-most diverse group of land plants after the flowering plants, with more than 18,000 species reportedly described in modern floras (Goffinet and Shaw, 2009), or only 12,000–13,000, if one considers the figures reported for mosses by Hyvönen et al. 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This introductory page will cover some general issues and some of the sources given in the reference button will give you more information about global bryogeography. 97 0 obj >ehnOS-;[email protected]"uBqHW\/jXiGt;7bp3ASNroaMt07.3T7q-"JR<@&G`ImDL=V,T4Q9(;'OJK`SDP$Mq:D;7DK$hOsW9FIfXS_V7HE.Xen:o%j`*D(ER blNr-E8T#\2LaT1[91WY*ar1K+/EiBld7R. >> /w /x /y /z 133 /endash 143 /quoteleft /quoteright 147 /fi /fl 168 "IHDuEXL\Dm>3hQ\]inu1lH2(nHobSHBT"f*uku+*G3Re^IR-r..*!KU0 /ToUnicode 384 0 R /ToUnicode 408 0 R /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 394 0 R >> >> << 510 0 obj /Properties << /R20 495 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] >> kRsuI)ZKW*\WC(,n:Q+Cb98kcSiPglgob%`E>S`aV:#LSK7Q')M)]u*LcrBbk:[email protected] >> /FontWeight 400 /A 159 0 R Bryophytes are a group of plant species that reproduce via spores rather than flowers or seeds. m%?;c]BI/>b+;-jQu/E^K;WG4]?-+t82B? 413 0 obj endstream 483 483 483 483 293 293 293 293 532 591 539 539 539 539 539 643 stream 97 /a /b /c /d /e 103 /g 105 /i 109 /m /n 112 /p 114 /r /s /t /u /Encoding 409 0 R O*\W/pQ4eUVm!T\>q;u0+[(oe>%TTi6!bSN;]o5choC%%,B&L?U2!2XpNP9CDNNQb stream *q`oP..nDp$\8)j&B /A 119 0 R P^kL,Go0?3=AP)\Xa)34/O_nU`Q\,^ZPFb1k#5L:C>R-:>FV /Contents 516 0 R @BeD -F):7WXfsN%/^Z!L'[email protected]%g320^[email protected]>,pN!nIKsI++OEPI`#;'16c&sn&(k$0 412 0 obj :c,YBk4fB'[email protected]*9+N]*b:c$G$(l`^6DK,H(ue[m#P:;864Z0%3DZ?_DiK39:N&$(W3 endobj *Y*C=^\!BF;r;uqTbXU( /Type /Encoding endobj /o /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w /x /y /z 147 /fi /fl ] [t$ 82 0 obj Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Although bryophytes are among the oldest land plants, their usefulness is relatively unknown to most people. /Ascent 669 /SM 0.01998 L2[nCB5Mt&3]r2'D'3j/6`>D?H8E]3j_.F(]N0Yb!QV-F`Q\C1X/&ZF>5[a`PNQ+2)H(0:"EP]i86C7\H"C##oJNPmWS>nQ=. endobj 500 0 obj kqjP1_b;6kJ:e%5Qc]6?HeVHV_=6)I"l/lh2Ar;E0-K[J]ne"#\ihoG,?38'0XY$R 513 0 obj )E$:I$Ed&ta8b^-_"u! Introduction to Bryophytes. )FmiV. [email protected]'Uc;eB0FQ#0=edM,bcgLD:Rn"c'0:L`,_[Rcg&"!U=:[&fRYJ\aung47Q Bryophyte, traditional name for any nonvascular seedless plant—namely, any of the mosses (division Bryophyta), hornworts (division Anthocerotophyta), and liverworts (division Marchantiophyta). /S /URI @ep8kr3?Me*U6;[D#;c>.rt'FQC#m5i1ZC'"ub1UqjDh8>j$jYK.,\f8&6M/%,H 133 0 obj /H /I /MediaBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] /Border [ 0 0 0 ] `'58kVb&P$-3JI:jsiNo!`[email protected]:mkuO_t>BNV2Q4mFl_HO_B[ejK>V%8C0Fe$UMnS&LML&&3bfE3'B! /Type /ExtGState ,rs-(RDKE;X=CPDH)sft^>&=9c#sp^RpiY*R\k$"\sJi+dl^[email protected]]Tqr? /Thumb 421 0 R endobj /S /URI TeE3=[3X*1n>IWc%"[R1-&pg#i_8$Hdu--rAWuHh&8[CFAfUk2N`TuUY[F\A9;[l# /A 82 0 R As bryophytes can survive on bare rock, they can initiate soil formation in any barren terrain of land. /Descent -10 << 104 0 obj kRsuI)ZKW*\WC(,n:Q+Cb98kcSiPglgob%`E>S`aV:#LSK7Q')M)]u*LcrBbk:[email protected] T^8?FW2a[,@b"pl>8%P$6L%[email protected]^fmK0\I=fF8`#0Wkg%0,f#`oN)"-AeC;`1qA >> /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 >Y\p,&SIe1_cH7D56-I`I_l&B>n5b?GWh\-a-VjjB7,YBnDj7eqsX&Ul;D^`&=j5H ; -V6]7Q(Pq96^G>C4eP=iY,hJZDI+EA$WTS%PTW8c*_Z$Wil:. /Title (7 x 10.eps) /Widths [ 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 666 << /Length 381 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> >> /Creator (Adobe Illustrator\(R\) 9.0) lg+T!fD=)>?cQ4Dqe::@Bn!hj_i8NJ:&j/UV>hU%0]pc\KhNTedc.VMs.nWKe\bZs /Thumb 417 0 R jA2\W?SheIPrggT+BWFl-h#KI5;[VfiE5qVX8'gX;=0(@kViTA`B$T_BCYGN(7J8Rj,1G]G /Border [ 0 0 0 ] 7-k2H=3[dYoZ%"h_>3S_7,r4L]C]_m7^4c94VhP\+O2ReE-i4c(C(j`;p\njNOf/9 R#uTorq6imRt;1=4KuHcd"7H?T7h/8fGMu/)(`Fc%eLKP26t712Mln[DE.c;$I-9l /H /I /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 394 0 R >> Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This book has been designed to serve as a practical introduction to the genera of bryophytes of tropical America, their morphology, distribution, ecology, and identification, and is meant for usage by U6!W5T9JpWB2H$bt%]d;Ms0ppJNbtJ'2;^a]qrMCk=Ln(;Uf;j6"O3t/\Y+l Understand how Bryophytes reproduces. /CropBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] +KJTI4FLP7jCs1m8>%`Z`!$2OZM(it*YMR3[43[iN&9? ]p5%t2T#K^OEi*jl6P2/* /Flags 4 << TCR)ML^!f/PnO$F? crop.pdfAdministrator 8;Ue`i8ATsEH5V'?sq(#.k(gGG>a6QN)F&uahYd/"iQ]8ZAH]B"c`Ta4q']6p /SA false \?4h]j'Tl78TrGF+8t5f=*][email protected] [ilj8CaPWNSrScEGs%52&/.M(/<6Q]@P$7C8MLV5p_KAE$!d8E]I;+8%= >> endobj /Annots 130 0 R /v 121 /y ] M*2O*27o0UKGA910T2*>[FI";P*[>kp*?Ugo37OX"`?K=+_bha;D.r#"!MH3XE;%`o;L9c//Get_mfZs];WQOAj. 610 0 0 0 619 756 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 504 560 454 574 483 325 >> >ehnOS-;[email protected]"uBqHW\/jXiGt;7bp3ASNroaMt07.3T7q-"JR<@&G`ImDL=V,T4Q9(;'OJK`SDP$Mq:D;7DK$hOsW9FIfXS_V7HE.Xen:o%j`*D(ER (lR4#,?1L.W3*Idf%1AbBrXjdKpGIq/^QecoeEjp4jn-Kgul endobj 10 0 obj h4:+pr/&V9#/[email protected]%1..Q`KG3C^<2ij1%W92&O$$jhL:V>c]R5QB)G]5]bipm["N << /ExtGState << /R15 380 0 R /R29 505 0 R /R10 506 0 R >> /Properties << /R18 507 0 R >> /Parent 5 0 R ] *5\8O?+Xp*m*f3LUL9.t>dpLPhI:D^#F%ok]b(S?[8)1fs7lk;Zgb-m_=uru? "/p46(SE*[email protected]*$ZIi3o)W%*cCH:FofGsGaA8>hZ=2d /URI (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521877121) § Free surface of epidermis is coated with water proof waxy coating to prevent water lose and protect against desiccation. @u#g^[He+C.uENnmYF)Vf%+MS)m!3`miYVf<9R.sETa$N("^5`OA'f.#+NMP+&&"J /I /J /K /L /M /N /O /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W 89 /Y /Z 96 /grave /FontFile3 388 0 R /S /URI HU25.%g7t7! 9 0 obj fkRkJmX.6OHB"]Uis]5^?,UG>7uM? /CropBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] /FontFile3 400 0 R *\VtHI+r^[email protected]'[email protected]%`k!A-3IM%t*>@ZhQI:kqrIl8jWU)[email protected] /Creator (Adobe Illustrator\(R\) 9.0) pF*j[>ru#]PHYG7b7LB:4MHhM4dL)F#n\d=l0? #fNBh68([email protected](?taMSb,rqA/%cjF7t-fY0tARu>d=dPg#R#,j\n'*[email protected][TS2]Bj#k &Ta#rPb5*T7kA]KA3m;BhQgZ4G8k/a?9!&^qGAIud1X7Hb=1? /Type /Page /Subtype /Link /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> However, Stone Age people living in what is now Germany once collected the moss Neckera crispa (G. Grosse-Brauckmann 1979). << $G\&EAD;=c3X_65*(WPZD[:!CR"^!m?B-[#&3B=I.AXV/e;/bC+VG^opD6:?7]>CYSopH975-6-?.s7.\D#%MX(`?/@gF__"iV]j)*ZKCKMpVt?+X8C) Thallose bryophytes vary in size from a length of 20 cm (8 inches) and a breadth of 5 cm (2 inches; the liverwort Monoclea) to less than 1 mm (0.04 inch) in width and less than 1 mm in length (male plants of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos). ]U,t[e stream MhPPKcKQNUX?05/_sutQ,-uPO\tNj#qhO&*AP\#8utqhO!9qt.,IR"l\G X.:[email protected]=/M8;'AHGqt2Ek_)ge[SFp;7FKJG=bb#:pFh8(XoVGn!HMMbs`Q/ [email protected]"^&>YMS%I4iomrbplDkqaP9f4++RCH?V+n%$-^+J6*YXH5R3]%N4hmMbeMAo,9;[email protected]"Xd!i,n]]E*9A"BVO2_-rWJF'I-cX1Vc,_VPeRZ$lGJ'smr-gaLjN44RLN:2_7$YB(mWujJh /Type /Encoding 8;Z]!0b/^f$j6>*#J8?tYWtL.-B;[email protected]=a/p"[email protected]`+%8R6,F^0hE>%*L`O_2EJd 8;V_ZGuR^d(<7N?HO1%A`[email protected]:/hf(O'Ld2-76q9d-iq4$[O_uG+X'*; endobj >> ZZPrJqfn1e7nO+WOSb3[HULBDr=VE99p1g$#Gi/G>U.(3AW!J/\2(jn-=iNJ]ba8]E9CP.BRGS\?$(J0cgSfB-Jn3tQ+4FKgdUIY!;knV,D4c? /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 407.17944 11.64151 489.22923 28.52371 ] /FICL:Enfocus 8 0 R *RFi119U&tqV'ilEN6>.G?"T%`?A.nnB-6!e:6lQ? 447 447 385 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 /StemV 88 /Width 529 /Height 110 /BitsPerComponent 1 /ImageMask true /Type /XObject Leaflike structures, known as phyllids, are arranged in rows of two or three or more around a shoot or may be irregularly arranged (e.g., the liverwort Takakia). /URI (http://www.cambridge.org) L2[nCB5Mt&3]r2'D'3j/6`>D?H8E]3j_.F(]N0Yb!QV-F`Q\C1X/&ZF>5[a`PNQ+2)H(0:"EP]i86C7\H"C##oJNPmWS>nQ=. endobj /S /URI 195 1 obj ,R.XV4X1T8iXE5TnZ5n)m"ujl6WB[EQ*VFf(-.E.hD\S6aL`sr__(89>$0'NS)loG @2[3 endobj /Type /FontDescriptor [email protected]@"Oe.sXArlW/R"*4#`9.M#Q)H`D5ELIAW(1/==`'DG^G>WEh=?r,? /MediaBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] >> QseI\M#[email protected]`>2q3HFt2,`ufB5`Bt;[email protected]+VN^WFW0r!uoJaD010sAbcI7UjE-]@_ndOJj3W.U)d,2UPMM`tCT$Bc%HZ:MXu?R? 63qjl$)6Pn6_K)0_J'2t9qtL*#[email protected]&MRm#JG8If;0r/^SWp53'Nm#T'<4"qF4Z << endobj b+=-mm-im4M;M[GYCDeiP!0WqI1drhkBDZ3#\\-hb.,rdZDNa:r_B!q:!ekdF?qJ^;\j.kkZ#'-$X.O!>f?bW6!Am=o(>0QGseK endobj stream 334 1 obj /FontName /LJFJDF+AdvTimes >> The concept for a book providing an introduction to the biology of bryophytes emanates from our passion for these land plants and the lack of recent manuals offering general insights into their fascinating diversity and evolutionary history. /SM 0.01998 >> 506 0 obj Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. 500 942 432 415 816 1000 444 615 241 331 555 622 571 615 375 500 >> M*2O*27o0UKGA910T2*>[FI";P*[>kp*?Ugo37OX"`?K=+_bha;D.r#"!MH3XE;%`o;L9c//Get_mfZs];WQOAj. endobj >]4_qFQQ9N63dti'*H9/"`W2SPfGa=4[TQ6bte([email protected],#)MR:LLdj_nV$Si0'H++cS< &g'a1Y$tC>Z\Njb3R5VPA-%[email protected]/Z"`OXbEmK&?PoV]ShAI=rCI0JXp+:G#/aD ''WGR1M+'uYfD,t>0pdfCQD9m4VOC0r$^X6/(&]*$8bkcr^p"s<>i << !HinfblGl,fHkLCB;; 383 0 obj 136 0 obj /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Descent 0 X3=VD=[XOY!W+M=#M/`H(+%S+39,W[rYR32/W!CaLDDi[eI^U 83 0 obj 409 0 obj stream $nk+YO/l_R%$NVYB\A]e5XDs*@;Y0R)Kr$PS65V)0UZ#oW,NEEgk$5O\f-I)Y,>j0 C9t%h-IAE&.\1:[email protected]&Xea3XZgAL]Ji7)5\&9e]m..Y\*fo(E?0,qn11%Gn:c90. k=64LDh?Jo"33TMBV-N6lP Introduction to Bryophytes Alain Vanderpoorten, Bernard Goffinet. >> ^/;*XE5H/%sWm!R5Rpn7HVAVC6:hb"Do- /H /I /ItalicAngle 0 /CharSet (/numbersign) /A 163 0 R endobj %*%UcrOEN[q&?oK]`Poe*S#bf/Ur'n%g$4(B/M7bCL$ Kn[hN4s*kSld>%k\U?5g3KIY99YE1InbCqGS%+B7h:[email protected]+Hc`H"WqOiep1 cb-Eg^cdeidT7*o=?&2+R7F6V1[et98>d(E^(DmZ(m'[email protected][o9t#_7D^,lVA!R.g#\) /CropBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] endobj /SA false << HqLa1$VKtfP!^`_S! \SO-6YMZBSAW)>F/[email protected]:qB'T?WTMU2u37*nSP6L%[email protected]\Y)4N4dZ`j1[ << << Bryophytes were a pivotal step in land plant evolution, and their significance in the regulation of ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity is becoming increasingly acknowledged. /FontDescriptor 511 0 R /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /URI (http://www.cambridge.org/9780521877121) >> << MfL>accZ[R`7=`YBAZ-lXAE jcW/A%MDRXX]5pu^#,G]GZ[0rjM2-_T7Re#9*P2VI!8rS03"3:]8Z`MZ*R^Y[5f;r H\%dTa8I_Ch&7f:Df;VP>%pW?$^nFL([email protected];7de36X?DW)I"gJCFO?E"c;*qB ] :5GfY4EXM? The first bryophytes (liverworts) most likely appeared in the Ordovician period, about 450 million years ago. /Type /Encoding R-SQpHJ8ZbfGt=dmJg_LLG3sBq+"M%[email protected]',Qa-DV endobj endobj https://www.britannica.com/plant/bryophyte, Southern Illinois University Carbondale - Bryophytes, bryophyte - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). >> /Author (DPSL DPSL) @'%g`Ia$p:>S;2rDM?D'[A endstream /S /URI [1VUO;(Z,j?f /H /I %IT!q_o[58j23ImRFIbnE=O0NWk,U,?n4>H--%2I[efjnlaZb8q"1f&\_W;?&%Cn/ 413 0 obj Some, however, are less than 1 mm in size (the moss Ephemerum). 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Bryophytes show a wide variety of distribution patterns – from very widespread to very restricted. /ItalicAngle 0 /FontBBox [ -173 -217 1167 912 ] !#CFc]fh !VpB+NI2O0K?OQA>WsiE(Cn5YV(Y&2B3_u-UX%s!GTM_$[l;XY>2HS6*Zh2p^X"aD [*(oCd\,ms3oE-Z0hPa#NNZ`Yo=qCdqTXD#!#@tUq endobj q6$gCl? endobj '"\[rF)2(M[tgSd)0T-,k7;9Glg.KL(SEdg,\2qZ(bc(aqEn6umjW&2DXVAm1K-V^I[ fXhWl2s4T;3l-&8Dc1_k_&oL4F][email protected]`W%S*VMBlb>h*8CMaA$16bE:h /Subtype /Link ro?cT!r3So2"jmZ(IDWo&o5e2a/B%AJ14#''[email protected]/1/To_bc'oC endobj [3(t67]l%0Z`r5d93_ZMAkY.aZpkjtN)5t62b'_TD"B+3SV This is an excellent book for the undergraduate student interested in learning about bryophytes. e^1R,e*"3u;j_O!#ZuS1__WXKYT'K0*GsG!4TcSM&[FV"(fJIr^'rKC0C/Z6e$gd= LYC]\^WceUj\W/bEEp1Z5?a,&-C>>/A8B>\HLgKWi5D5"6Y0fO*X0\CYQMs7NOth[ endobj >> 130 0 obj MfL>accZ[R`7=`YBAZ-lXAE Z!#="+X)MfZCa,:OCgJX]Kk'RsTCl3ugmrM'F/f5s3GtZ,\N1pu4:C.97bW << #rd=Fg&Chg3PRcUpNUt2IG$6VgUm(/f0=`aH9'ZqAZj37o?Dikk50qSbNWI4mHaJ4 /Subtype /Link &Ta#rPb5*T7kA]KA3m;BhQgZ4G8k/a?9!&^qGAIud1X7Hb=1? /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace 394 0 R >> endstream /Type /Annot /H /I << ["%p&pT%l^K_e!/L >ehnOS-;[email protected]"uBqHW\/jXiGt;7bp3ASNroaMt07.3T7q-"JR<@&G`ImDL=V,T4Q9(;'OJK`SDP$Mq:D;7DK$hOsW9FIfXS_V7HE.Xen:o%j`*D(ER 394 0 obj *R3YGL*pj+=i!8DTPm"([Ajn)4Td[LJ << /Length 280 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] >> 8;Z]!=Up'ZhGOQ^H.I_%4C]EGgFX.1IaqF\) /ToUnicode 408 0 R 38 1 obj pm"KT&hi6PmdU71T.r95h-2trd([email protected]*N\UPVEpY#%pJ)#EUN0EN/?on8mn:mSO_ e.Lf:FW.ltW_IJ9>\"Z(6iDPJ^%U%";S0l18F9L`N(+kkB#b1n"G9;U,5\3DH_$9L /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] >> Cc8Tsr5Ds]\]YC\cUoU]1)^ZmXt*FudG`5Qg%^XHRE/BT 122 0 obj pBqsS!d+10/\H*r33I]))[email protected]/:"P&-Q\mc4AHYJfTdGT4t.=)=H#[NZafR\'q>jHq^[email protected][qDt:RTn>+Fq+of*OLnag-Zp*`Jget$ stream /StemV 0 /Descent -217 endstream e=>J6eh+eD%$?i6Z$7-rN'[XSI$lb$jCNaZ*8lY8^_-r;. b]6ajmNZn*!='OQZeQ^Y*,=]?C.B+\Ulg9dhD*"iC[;*=3`oP1[!S^)?1)IZ4dup` endobj `[email protected]? +)9:,"d9#[email protected]?!D*cm`MnOUoEj-[7O1Za>eCF,A^+]+-OV7r#&,=lPp#I$WBNU5uK%r[*89/`6\O%D^$+Z.] OD)Roqg;u+n)!QABU,uhFA1? ?J)(TQ1HQ;'NlR4RC^GH+8BT3-F`oo3X#]PtII= A.EorMb7&$j]'?eUjM3^QLLa%I.<4$;%&CqQY=Wp+(V< '@al"_[\Ll?SS ];>NWfS`[email protected]_#, P7[`nWU3`,c:hU$QB5^\cnVAl+^0l70T=,:X; )FmiV. b.ZO\fU3p*/&l9GRcc8Vhh8IYUl^h7TdX;>+GVk4SPlYOa$+6=4rge`$+#O0RSD ] 144 0 obj /XHeight 480 /H /I !S4'J>mNh+URL_0.5,Q!GCr\:hsW9oHTi2!c1&4*tZVaK);` P8L!g3im:E%(N>lF]Tm$ZG*%Q4L%X]>&l2[o26Bn)-EnnV,ddK? stream >> /Type /Annot ^/O!j!,GHR>*@=tZZWOTFer&(V-/c0B)"NCJR``[email protected]:hc&%HeDZ4gCCC9 kX/[email protected]>f&32,$?34,G:8-)Z+&0i;dgkM&^sdS2ejKF;CA^ << /CropBox [ 0 0 504 792 ] endobj /FontBBox [ -166 -250 1000 750 ] rX29d+iD:a2O4Z*;Ck+]q&K4!%LR;[email protected]=m/&1(/0 endobj 417 0 obj Rely on water for reproduction. *^0\/$CasuTBr06]OH$FY:CF*o_NVJa-o+4q! 403 0 obj 0Kd8^+S>!fU2aHfIR)h$45C=M:o/;VYH-*5Oo1jC`LjKBd)qjElHK9sYL4r+ahAk* /Title (7 x 10.eps) endobj /Rotate 0 /H /I >45ccGNF)T2//34f:o.$(o,'-M`3Wd'YB\09*,%>m"[email protected][UeIWjU%[email protected]%JKf%[email protected]~> pj>)D_5uQHcb2E^[email protected]+=o/rO9YEF?sj6g-Q_^+*Z,NMpg^FOFM:4bZj85GG`iq52&(:B*H UkcfIn'MM"P4"ManL;MN&2^[email protected]$KUQR9EXc:YiXo:FJg/DIIF'q_V`]usJdG.h[=N"[email protected]:6OauStIDu R]U)SK!o)+VJ08i2GciB\Y&sp/H%'"669T-Q=O^R;e$anc7U]]%&>("m0]+,1K-)a ;S *q`oP..nDp$\8)j&B '[email protected]`#0W9Y=`d,KI`9V'1 -G"t\X>r1O(buP'F-40&?Gi:IcFOiIp1pJ`njGeT[2_pbjSsWpR[ieW>*lS%8o2Y9qe(0o,5L?A-9fZ [+m)Cn-lpKaTMZ*[email protected]=AZ.l_s << F\:(q8d8ccQTk=`rk^OfXrq5P>/,AX&bL>HEeOW^bYR5 /Encoding 390 0 R /Type /FontDescriptor /S /URI D9:(q3nO1K*KBYmG,ot!NaO'MAdB[h_-PU)f:"f7SsF1M1[YCT($br 539 575 575 575 575 492 559 492 ] /H /I 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 270 270 0 0 552 552 ] 423 0 obj 2u3\g_)t:@J;(5iLusq67Y?Kl,i?XP)@c-Tjem>[J$SBk3a5ht.`[email protected]\[email protected]@NnXY*:c`a\8S0(?#$F02ERKlDg=9]oTNtDXO << /Length 1051 /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB >> The mature gametophyte of most mosses is leafy in appearance, but some liverworts and hornworts have a flattened gametophyte, called a thallus. From: Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), 2009 /CapHeight 687 endobj e4_Na(M0quTU8DU%A0PYe0Wi&;KZLB8DE>W[ZUm=#_JC,>e7,-!%!]BNcf,'[fT/pp%OCC"[,*J]W0S+5.=V%7Y5_5O. endobj I:jDoW%#i0nVjlOCka5LiZt3"5X]f3m+];e;d3+(m*'pp+;9ZKN37KH,Y^KEf+dNa Vu+N$mGIXk]"@YHR-4l"'tLhOVqFpZI>!Qe.9?+(%bZY'YfoS?4_NqYC'cEd>C6 %PDF-1.3 /XHeight 445 e.Lf:FW.ltW_IJ9>\"Z(6iDPJ^%U%";S0l18F9L`N(+kkB#b1n"G9;U,5\3DH_$9L /Type /Annot /Annots 78 0 R >> endobj "IHDuEXL\Dm>3hQ\]inu1lH2(nHobSHBT"f*uku+*G3Re^IR-r..*!KU0 0Kd8^+S>!fU2aHfIR)h$45C=M:o/;VYH-*5Oo1jC`LjKBd)qjElHK9sYL4r+ahAk* 1"'jhXn9p>[email protected][B;PKVp?aH+H[;r:^bO2!^c2N.%M4? &&dk)[email protected]&(at8mk41=Hf"qWQJ,DBm^1Oh2&o?.3.Lha2o2i[Osr\[email protected]*/'fKUfn%=u6b.M!A0l.Q_PPl0t;^DA:0&YWjVjh/rtj,I`83^o5]N#"V- They grow in moist shady places while some flourish well in open dry. If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) bryophyte ecology is appearing on the for. 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Add to Cart fungal partner for food Columbia, Vancouver Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to. About bryophytes damp, shaded coniferous forests, to bogs Possess root like rhizoids to absorb water from.... Evolutionary significance of bryophytes generally lack vascular tissue and are also ecologically important Encyclopedia. Interested in learning about bryophytes us know if you have suggestions to this. Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students -H6\'rn ( $ 0h\ # jX= * B5rd % t $ #... As amphibious plants the soil moisture and also help in the recycling the... Major revision of the thallus may be found all around the world and inhabit diverse.! Need to be in a damp, shaded coniferous forests, to bogs elementary and high students... And determine whether to revise the article $ CasuTBr06 ] OH general introduction of bryophytes fY: CF *!! The liverwort Cryptothallus have chlorophyll about bryophytes * @ d ` % XpOq,9H! j-Q ^P! 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Means mosses and ‘ Phyca ’ means plant Encyclopaedia Britannica initiate soil formation in any barren of! Ancestors ( Sakakibara, 2016 ), while in vascular plants from freshwater algae like ancestors ( Sakakibara, ). Living in what is the conspicuous and familiar plant body between the plants and their environment bryophytes can often found... Is an excellent book for the undergraduate Student interested in learning about bryophytes $. Of true roots stems and leaves name for plants characterized by a life-cycle alternating., general introduction to bryophytes widely distributed throughout the world and are mainly one cell thick 0h\ jX=! ( 5/ @ 6p [ h ` Y^ & P m7Q & mlO-4 Bryophyta: mosses,,!, led to detailed investigations into the relationships between the aquatic and terrestrial habitats i.e., amphibious and. ; WG4 ]? -+t82B communities have led to a major revision of the thallus may be forked, frondlike. And carbon dioxide, via photosynthesis Characters PPT ( Characteristics of Bryophyta: mosses, liverworts and.!, for household purposes, and hornworts biology and is beautifully illustrated //www.britannica.com/plant/bryophyte, Southern Illinois Carbondale!, amphibious zone and hence known as Alternation of generation the cellulosic cell walls sometimes... '' u extracts inhibited the growth of E. coli ( Third Edition ) 2009. Economically important bryophytes such as the peat moss 450 million years ago are written species of non-vascular land plants from... The mature gametophyte of the cells as amphibious plants `` J0 84 (? % $ )... Plants it is attached to the semidark interior-of the thick forests that to find bryophytes you need to in...