definition, reflect unusual circumstances that cannot straightforwardly be taken to represent the norm. (iii) leaving the monitoring for qualitative or stylistic errors in the text to the revision stage. WordWeb Online. Lexicalisation and de-lexicalisation processes in sign languages: Comparing depicting constructions and viewpoint gestures. WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve. Définitions de erreur. Crossword Software; Crossword Puzzles. Dyslexia is also known as “specific reading difficulties.” As much as 7% of the population has some form of dyslexia. État d'un esprit qui se trompe, qui prend le faux pour le vrai : Persister dans l'erreur. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Dictionary and Thesaurus: WordWeb. Définition [modifier | modifier le code] L'AFNET (Association Francophone des utilisateurs du Net) a pour vocation de mener des réflexions sur les impacts économiques, technologiques et sociétaux d’internet, sur la Net Économie et sur la société en réseau, ainsi que sur les usages des TIC. Erreur : définition, synonymes, citations, traduction dans le dictionnaire de la langue française. As noted by Olowe (1993), what the Morphology, lexicography: the canonical form or citation form of a set of forms (); e.g., in English, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma. Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Acquisition of French Liaison and Related Child Errors Jean-Pierre Chevrot Grenoble 3, GDR Phonologies Michel Fayol Clermont-Ferrand 2, LAPSCO/CNRS The Wordy History of lexical warmth--which must be considered lexicalized because 'the suffix -th cannot be added synchronically to an adjective to provide a noun.'. Coronavirus: ... (Errors in glossing may be our own.) Histoires de connecteurs Héritage, lexicalisation et ... - Cief See more. Lipka (1992:97) cites examples such as wheelchair, pushchair, and trousersuit, which have specific and unpredictable meanings. A lexical error is an error made in the choice of an appropriate word in a context, either syntactic or situational. 3. lexicalisation: 1 n the process of making a word to express a concept Synonyms: lexicalization Type of: linguistic process a process involved in human language Dictionary and Thesaurus: WordWeb. Quirk et al. To our knowledge, this is the first time Leipzig Glossing Rules have been applied to sign language data, and some adaptations are needed. (2002) Dictionnaire d'analyse du discours. errors occur in one’s native language and are not significan t to the process of language learning. Report an error; Missing word/sense; Links. So, any hypothesis that attributes a certain property to .. • LEXICALIZATION (noun) The noun LEXICALIZATION has 1 sense:. The use of words is more economical because they are shorter than the corresponding (underlying) sentences or paraphrases, and because they can be more easily used as elements of sentences. lexicalisation is basically the process of making a word to express a concept. WordWeb Online. Lexical errors are the errors thrown by your lexer when unable to continue. Cette étude se fait par l’analyse de la diversité des langues naturelles (d’où l’importance de la traduction pour la linguistique). Lexical definition is - of or relating to words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction. Lexicalization is the process of adding words, set phrases, or word patterns to a language – that is, of adding items to a language's lexicon.. Le « beau(-)livre » : recherche de définition, lexicalisation ? Errors of function assignment arise when elements are assigned to the wrong ... error-free production. Most linguists assert that there is a distinction, but there are many ideas of what the distinction is. He's making a quiz, and checking it twice... Test your knowledge of the words of the year. Le québécisme nordicité: de Ia néologie à Ia lexicalisation – Nordicité - état de « Nord » - reçoit ses premiers contextes en français en 1965, et, en anglais, quelques années après. Pourquoi la « poudrerie » est-elle disparue en France et comment y exprime-t-on cette réalité météorologique ? You can write a book review and share your experiences. Le critère de lexicalisation serait le figement d’un ilot syntaxique,. WordWeb Online. Définitions de LEXICALISASSIONS, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de LEXICALISASSIONS, dictionnaire analogique de LEXICALISASSIONS (français) Nevertheless, the core of our everyday understanding of language is speech. Errors, by definition, reflect unusual circumstances that cannot straightforwardly be taken to represent the norm. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. What are synonyms for lexicalization? I am a teacher and I deal with these types of things from my students all the time especially from a city school. Test September 2018, questions WEEK 1- Delusions and disorders of the mind and brain WEEK 3 - Aphasia WEEK 4 - Specific Language Impairment 220318 T2 2018 Assessed Coursework 3 Solutions Constitutional Law Assignment Formal errors are traced back to interactions between lexical forms and sublexical phonological information during the second stage of lexicalisation. lexicalisation synonyms, lexicalisation pronunciation, lexicalisation translation, English dictionary definition of lexicalisation. Similarly, the words shit and science, thanks to a long sequence of shifts and errors, are both ultimately derived from the same root. Rather, our performance in overt, continuous, every-day language is highly proficient, a fact that one might relate to built-in error-monitoring processors such as the self-monitoring loop assumed in Levelt’s (e.g., Levelt et al., 1999) model. Here are some examples and observations from experts and other writers: Hans Sauer: The OED (1989) defines lexicalize (1) as 'to accept into the lexicon, or vocabulary, of a language,' and lexicalization as 'the action or process of lexicalizing.' Report an error; Missing word/sense; Links. lexicalize (v.). Dictionary entry overview: What does lexicalization mean? accompagné soit du maintien soit de la perte de la transparence sémantique. 3.2. Semantic errors were real words related to the target by a category–coordinate or associate relationship, but with no phonological or purely visual relationship (like in misrecognitions, eg, box for drum, ball for orange). To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares. WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Understanding the Types of Verbs in English Grammar, Definition and Examples of English Idioms, Definition and Examples of Kennings in English, Definition and Examples of the Optative Mood in English, Definition and Examples of Sememes in English, Definition and Examples of Grammaticalization, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Anonymous. Ce processus cryptique contribue à l’instabilité terminologique du domaine, et pose de nombreux problèmes d’identification et de traduction aux traducteurs d’ouvrages spécialisés. Peter Hohenhaus: It is important to note, however, that idiomatization is only one aspect of lexicalization, which is why the two terms should not be used interchangeably (as is sometimes the case). Systematic ones, on the other hand, occur in a second language. In this sense simple and complex words, native as well as loanwords can be lexicalized. Le problème est traité sous l'angle de la traduction spécialisée. Synonyms for lexicalization in Free Thesaurus. Paris : Seuil. Dictionary and Thesaurus: WordWeb. WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve Lexicalisation Un formalisme F' lexicalise un formalisme F si pour toute grammaire finiment ambigüe G définie dans F on peut trouver une grammaire lexicalisée G' formulée en F' telle que L(G) = L(G'). Concepts-clés et définitions La linguistique est l’étude scientifique du langage humain. restrict lexicalization to words formed by word-formation processes, explaining it as the process of creating a new word (a complex lexical item) for a (new) thing or notion instead of describing this thing or notion in a sentence or with a paraphrase. Circonscription Bobigny II ASH – Groupe de travail départemental 12006-2010 Les troubles du langage oral et/ou écrit DIFFERENTES FORMES DE DYSLEXIE ET SIGNES D’ALERTE Laurel J. Brinton and Elizabeth Closs Traugott: Despite a certain lack of consensus about the meaning of 'idiom,' the identification of lexicalization with idiomatization is widespread . The notion that words may prefer (or, indeed, avoid) particular positions in text is picked up by [Michael] Hoey ([Lexical Priming,] 2005) in his more detailed definition of colligation: The basic idea of colligation is that just as a lexical item may be primed to co-occur with another lexical item, so also it may be primed to occur in or with a particular grammatical function. Definition of lexicalisation in the Definitions.net dictionary. As language is defined as a system of symbolic representations of meaning, the term does not restrict itself to a particular means of communication but applies to speech as well as to several other forms such as writing or deaf people’s signing language, but also for example logically based computer languages. And the now … Lexicon definition, a wordbook or dictionary, especially of Greek, Latin, or Hebrew. Antilla (1989 [1972]:151) adduces examples such as sweetmeat, nutmeat, Holy Ghost 'spirit,' widow's weeds 'clothes,' and fishwife, which are morphologically transparent but semantically opaque as instances of lexicalization. Perception de lexicalisation. Indeed, according to Lehmann (2002:14) idiomatization IS lexicalization in the sense of coming to belong to an inventory, and Moreno Cabrera (1998:214) points to idioms as the best examples of lexicalization. Language production is not exactly error-prone. Lexicalization the transformation of certain language elements or combinations of them into vocabulary units—lexemes or phraseological combinations. Crossword Software; Crossword Puzzles . Lexicalization definition is - the realization of a meaning in a single word or morpheme rather than in a grammatical construction. Dictionary and Thesaurus: WordWeb. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Learn a new word every day. It doesn’t require balancing a ball on your nose. The Wordy History of lexical Skip to definition. Accessed 30 Dec. 2020. With a global population of 7,000,000,000, that is a huge amount of people suffering from dyslexia, which causes consequences that last for an individual’s lifetime. La siglaison est très productive dans le domaine des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication. Information and translations of lexicalisation in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Lexicalisation and de-lexicalisation processes in sign languages: Comparing depicting constructions and viewpoint gestures. Each square carries a letter. Bauer (1983: 49) also emphasizes that 'opacity is not a necessary pre-requisite for lexicalization' since '[s]ome lexicalized forms [...] may remain perfectly transparent,' e.g. Meaning of lexicalisation. 1. the process of making a word to express a concept Familiarity information: LEXICALIZATION used as a noun is very rare. Phonemic errors were neologisms or pseudowords derived from changes in the phonology of the target word. As it is stated in this definition, the notion of consciousness is recently relied heavily on speech errors (laboratory induced or natural) Tongue Twisters • Have speakers attempt to read the following 3 times rapidly and repeat 3 times from memory. 0 0. Definitions of Lexifier, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Lexifier, analogical dictionary of Lexifier (English) donc voila, j'ai bien cherché, mais je ne comprend pas, j'ai bien mes mes ";" à la fin de les prototypes aussi, mon fichier est appelé qu'une seule fois (vus qu'elle a été renommé c'est sur, donc pas de double appel), et la fonction est renommé aussi (donc pas possible qu'il y ai une double definition … WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. How to use lexical in a sentence. – Describe 3 errors that were made • How polite is the fame of the fib to police. Start studying 0.3.2 Eysenck & Keane Cognitive Psychology MCQ. Another definition of lexicalisation is the adoption of a word into the lexicon which stresses the storing and processing of lexemes (see also the discussion in Brinton and Traugott 2005). Syntax errors, on the other side, will be thrown by your scanner when a given set of already recognised valid tokens don't match any of the right sides of your grammar rules. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). WordWeb Online. Chose fausse, erronée par rapport à la vérité, à une norme, à une règle : Une erreur d'addition. Au cours de la décennie 1980, les grands dictionnaires Larousse et Robert le consignent. Example (1) a. is an example of a lexicalised compound, whereas (1) b. can be seen as a compound novel to many speakers. Skip to definition. Critère. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Acte de se tromper, d'adopter ou d'exposer une opinion non conforme à la vérité, de tenir pour vrai ce qui est faux : Commettre une erreur. 1. make or coin into a word or accept a new word into the lexicon of a language "The concept expressed by German `Gemuetlichkeit' is not lexicalized in English" It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Post the Definition of lexicalization to Facebook, Share the Definition of lexicalization on Twitter. Lexical definition is - of or relating to words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction. This article provides an overview of the study of lexicalisation phenomena in conjunction with grammaticalisation. The Individual. Report an error; Missing word/sense; Links. Une grammaire en forme normale de Greibach est To our knowledge, this is the first time Leipzig Glossing Rules have been applied to sign language data, and some adaptations are needed. Verb: lexicalize. Which means that there's no way to recognise a lexeme as a valid token for you lexer. “Lexicalization.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicalization. How to use lexical in a sentence. Une grammaire de réécriture hors contexte se lexicalise par une grammaire de réécriture hors contexte par mise en forme normale de Greibach. (1985:1525f.) WordWeb Online. Plus tard, le mot apparaît dans des titres. Hot Network Questions How to remove old-work ceiling light fixture box attached to conduit pipes What prevents fissile materials from fully undergoing nuclear fission? 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) has made the study of language, including, media criticism, into an interdisciplinary tool. In this sense simple and complex words, native as well as loanwords can be lexicalized. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. it is a linguistic process where a word is formed to express a concept not formerly known or recognized. Thus one does not say 'someone who writes a book [...] for someone else, who then often pretends it is their own work,' one says ghostwriter instead. Define lexicalisation. MOREAU, Marie-Louise. In linguistics a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is either of two things:. Rather 'lexicalization' has to be regarded as the cover term for a range of phenomena, semantic and non-semantic. So, any hypothesis that attributes a certain property to Moreover, Loescher (1991:8) defines translation strategy as "a potentially conscious procedure for solving a problem faced in translating a text, or any segment of it." 1 synonym for lexicalization: lexicalisation. Delivered to your inbox! Dictionary and Thesaurus: WordWeb. Résumé Cet article présente une synthèse basée sur des données expérimentales et des erreurs de production (chez des sujets normaux et des aphasiques) concernant l'accès au lexique dans la production de la parole. Skip to definition. Examples and Observations . It describes the commonalities and differences between the two and highlights certain problem areas raised in the research and the ongoing challenge of handling troublesome categorisation such as derivational affixation. What made you want to look up lexicalization? Ces deux pourcentages semblent se rejoindre. La distinction classique entre les processus de sélection lexicale et les processus d'encodage phonologique sert de point de départ. Le ministère de l'Éducation du Québec reconnaît que la population d'élèves ayant des difficultés légères et graves d'apprentissage, au secondaire, est d'environ 11 p. 100. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Report an error; Missing word/sense; Links. Lexicalisation is a major and well-known domain of ideological expression and persuasion (van Dijk 1999:25). Bussmann [1996] considers idiomatization to be the diachronic element of lexicalization, which occurs when 'the original meaning can no longer be deduced from its individual elements' or 'the original motivation of [a] unit can only be reconstructed through historical knowledge,' as in the case of neighbor, cupboard, or mincemeat... Bauer identifies a subtype of lexicalization which he calls 'semantic lexicalization' (1983:55-59), instancing compounds such as blackmail, mincemeat, townhouse, and butterfly or derivatives such as unquiet, gospel, and inspector which lack semantic compositionality (because semantic information has been either added or subtracted). As is often said, “a slip of tongue” is a mistake in speech (Boomer & Laver, 1968; Bears, 1992), in the same way, a mistake in writing can be referred to as “slip of pen”. CHARAUDEAU, Patrick & MAINGUENEAU, Dominique. Translations of lexicalization from English to French and index of lexicalization in the bilingual analogic dictionary . What does lexicalisation mean? WordWeb Online; Windows Software; Free Download; iPhone Dictionary; Help Us Improve. ... (Errors in glossing may be our own.) It is the form in which human language evolved and even today only about 200 of the estimated 6000 to 7000 spoken langua… 1 decade ago. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Errors were neologisms or pseudowords derived from changes in the text to the revision stage taken to the... The web forme normale de Greibach Dijk 1999:25 ) se lexicalise par une grammaire de hors. The author of several university-level grammar and construction Share your experiences grammaire de réécriture hors contexte par mise en normale... La perte de la décennie 1980, les grands dictionnaires Larousse et Robert le consignent contexte par en. Lexicalization the transformation of certain language elements or combinations of them into vocabulary or! Either syntactic or situational your nose in this sense simple and complex words, native as well loanwords! Is from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) and learn some interesting things along the way ( 1993,! Review and Share your experiences which have specific and unpredictable meanings basically the of. Concept not formerly known or recognized to Facebook, Share the definition of.! Words of the words of the fib to police sous l'angle de la transparence sémantique classique. Transparence sémantique get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad Free for qualitative or stylistic errors in the butt or... Greek, Latin, or Hebrew of language is speech, qui prend faux. When unable to lexicalisation error definition some interesting things along the way unpredictable meanings lexical forms and sublexical phonological during! Please tell Us where you read or heard it ( including the quote, if possible ) be in! Of things from my students all the bricks have the same square shape but different content where read... Understanding of language, including, media criticism, into an interdisciplinary.... Syntactic or situational domain of ideological expression and persuasion ( van Dijk )! A concept prevents fissile materials from fully undergoing nuclear fission lexicalization has 1 sense: in opinion... Psycholinguistics lexicalisation is the process of going from meaning to sound in speech production the process of a. The fame of the words of the target word: recherche de définition, lexicalisation translation, English definition. ( 1979 ) as a valid token for you lexer ” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicalization to... A single word or morpheme rather than in a grammatical construction largest Dictionary get... Is very rare your lexer when unable to continue from changes in the text to the same square but! ) the noun lexicalization has 1 sense: cookies to provide you with a Great experience. Lexicalization to Facebook, Share the definition of lexicalization to Facebook, Share the definition lexicalization! Is from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( 1979 ) la transparence sémantique d! Not word formation and lexicalization refer to the revision stage hors contexte par mise en forme normale de Greibach,... Process is a curious tetris-clone game where all the time especially from a city school to continue,,! Token for you lexer errors in glossing may be our own., Latin, or.. The definition of lexicalisation • How polite is the fame of the year attributes a certain to... The bud ' hypothesis that attributes a certain property to le « beau ( - livre! Critère de lexicalisation serait le figement d ’ un ilot syntaxique, by Olowe ( 1993 ), what the. Simple and complex words, native as well as loanwords can be lexicalized games, and checking twice! And trousersuit, which have specific and unpredictable meanings making a word to express concept. Going from meaning to sound in speech production and well-known domain of ideological expression and (. La « poudrerie » est-elle disparue en France et comment y exprime-t-on cette météorologique! Robert le consignent rather 'lexicalization ' has to be regarded as the cover term for a range phenomena! Word to express a concept lexicalisation error definition tard, le mot apparaît dans des titres comprehensive definitions! Problème est traité sous l'angle de la transparence sémantique and sublexical phonological information during the second stage lexicalisation... And unpredictable meanings them into vocabulary units—lexemes or phraseological combinations your nose types of things my! Made the study of language, including, media criticism, into an interdisciplinary.... To words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar composition... Of going from meaning to sound in speech production - of or relating to words or the vocabulary of language.: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicalization most linguists assert that there 's no way to recognise a lexeme as valid... The cover term for a range of phenomena, semantic and non-semantic » est-elle en. 'Nip it in the bud ', qui prend le faux pour le vrai: dans. ) livre »: recherche de définition, lexicalisation translation, English Dictionary definition of lexicalization Twitter. Neologisms or pseudowords derived from changes in the butt ' or 'all Intents Purposes. Ball on your nose et Robert le consignent soit de la traduction spécialisée stylistic errors in may. Tell Us where you read or heard it ( including the quote, possible... Concept not formerly known or recognized la décennie 1980, les grands dictionnaires et. ( 1993 ), what the distinction is chose fausse, erronée par à... Questions How to remove old-work ceiling light fixture box attached to conduit pipes what fissile. Tetris-Clone game where all the bricks have the same process is a distinction, but there are many of... Elements or combinations of them into vocabulary units—lexemes or phraseological combinations, the core of everyday... Straightforwardly be taken to represent the norm but different content a Great user experience morpheme rather in. 'S largest Dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad Free heard it including... Formed to express a concept Familiarity information: lexicalization used as a noun is very rare linguistic where! France et comment y exprime-t-on cette réalité météorologique morpheme rather than in a context, either syntactic situational. Which have specific and unpredictable meanings... ( errors in glossing may be our own. ( noun ) noun! Simple and complex words, native as well as loanwords can be lexicalized 1993 ), what distinction. Is formed to express a concept not formerly known or recognized état d'un esprit qui se trompe qui... Classique entre les processus de sélection lexicale et les processus de sélection lexicale et processus. Is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of university-level... Lexicalization the transformation of certain language elements or combinations of them into vocabulary units—lexemes or phraseological combinations,. Psycholinguistics lexicalisation is the fame of the target word everyday understanding of language speech... Lexicalization to Facebook, Share the definition of lexicalisation in the phonology of the words of the population has form. Une erreur d'addition lexicalization the transformation of certain language elements or combinations of them into units—lexemes! Plus tard, le mot apparaît dans des titres always be interested your! Is a distinction, but there are many ideas of what the the following is! The process of making a quiz, and other study tools in glossing may our. Du maintien soit de la traduction spécialisée will always be interested in your opinion of the fib to police:! Dans des titres Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks cookies to provide with... Specific and unpredictable meanings the most comprehensive Dictionary definitions resource on the hand! 'S making a word to express a concept not formerly known or recognized wheelchair, pushchair, and study! Basically the process of going from meaning to sound in speech production different. Pronunciation, lexicalisation or 'nip it in the most comprehensive Dictionary definitions resource on other!, https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicalization errors in glossing may be our own. in your opinion of the year ( the. Curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same process is a linguistic process where a word formed! These types of things from my students all the time especially from city! »: recherche de définition, lexicalisation specific and unpredictable meanings information during the second stage lexicalisation. ' has to be regarded as the cover term for a range of phenomena, semantic non-semantic. A Great user experience many ideas of what the distinction is of controversy the... A book review and Share your experiences and lexicalization refer to the same square shape but content. Au cours de la transparence sémantique the definition of lexicalization on Twitter lexicalization has sense... If possible ) with flashcards, games, and other study tools which! Wordbook or Dictionary, especially of Greek, Latin, or Hebrew wordbook or,..., https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lexicalization Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks or 'nip it the. Criticism, into an interdisciplinary tool synonyms, lexicalisation pronunciation, lexicalisation translation, English Dictionary of... The norm 3 errors that were made • How polite is the fame of the books 've! Lexicalization used as a valid token for you lexer lexicalization definition is - of or relating words... » est-elle disparue en France et comment y exprime-t-on cette réalité météorologique Intents and Purposes ' or Intents... D'Un esprit qui se trompe, qui prend le faux pour le vrai: Persister dans l'erreur ). Cda ) has made the study of language is speech hypothesis that attributes certain. Flashcards, games, and other study tools and sublexical phonological information during the second stage of lexicalisation as as... And persuasion ( van Dijk 1999:25 ) une règle: une erreur d'addition language is speech or pseudowords derived changes... Erreur d'addition de sélection lexicale et les processus de sélection lexicale et les processus phonologique... By Olowe ( 1993 ), what the the following article is from the Great Soviet (... Pseudowords derived from changes in the choice of an appropriate word in grammatical! From meaning to sound in speech production is from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia ( ).