Intermediate ring: 18 pins Th-U with 4.345% U-235, 0000002112 00000 n The application consisted of nearly 12,000 pages of technical information. The NRC chairman said that the revised AP1000 design is one that seems to most fully meet the expectations of the commission’s policy statement on advanced reactors. It also produces reports and guidance documents that are shared internationally beyond the MDEP membership. ACR units can be built singly but are optimal in pairs. These would have burn-up of 60 GWd/t with fuelling interval of 3 to 3.5 years, but IRIS is designed ultimately for fuel with 10% enrichment and 80 GWd/t burn-up with an eight-year cycle, or equivalent MOX core. These reactors are in the 1300 megawatt range. March 2012: Atmea1 reactor. LaBar M. 2003, Status of the GT-MHR for electricity production, WNA Symposium Design was expected to be complete in 2007 but the project was shelved in 2006 in favour of the evolutionary VVER-1200. In Europe there are moves towards harmonised requirements for licensing. The basic design was to be completed in 2020, and in mid-2019 the French regulator ASN said it was happy with most aspects of the design. It is planned for building in the UK. 0000005192 00000 n The pool-type modules below ground level contain the complete primary system with sodium coolant. This is a large unit which would burn actinides with uranium and plutonium in oxide fuel. This led to international collaboration and a joint regulatory statement on the EPR instrumentation and control among ONR, US NRC, France's ASN and Finland's STUK. Initially it is being run with one-fifth MOX fuel, but will have a full MOX core from about 2020. However, all transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium. The BN-1200 is being designed by OKBM for operation with MOX fuel initially and dense nitride U-Pu fuel subsequently, in closed fuel cycle. IRIS is a modular 335 MWe pressurised water reactor with integral steam generators and primary coolant system all within the pressure vessel. Generation IV designs are still on the drawing board and will not be operational before the 2020s. Hitachi has also been closely involved, with its RBWR concept which has a major aim of burning actinides. It was chosen for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) nuclear programme on the basis of cost and reliable building schedule, and four units are under construction there, with the first expected online in 2020. In the light of operational experience of the first few reactors it would then apply for renewal of US design certification. Smirnov V.S. While Gidropress is responsible for the actual 1200 MWe reactor, Moscow AEP and Atomproekt St Petersburg are going different ways on the cooling systems, and the V-392M version is the basis of the VVER-TOI. It has double containment with four separate, redundant active safety systems, and boasts a core catcher under the pressure vessel. See also Electrometallurgical 'pyroprocessing' section in Processing Used Nuclear Fuel information paper. It is designed "not only for the base-load full power operation but also for a part load operation such as the load following operation. It is being developed by General Atomics in partnership with Russia's OKBM Afrikantov, supported by Fuji (Japan). (In the demonstration plant it would transfer heat in a steam generator rather than driving a turbine directly.) Outer: 24 pins Th-Pu-239 with 3.25% Pu. The application was supported by European utilities, and was granted in 2017. A feature of some new designs is modular construction. In October 2015 CGN submitted the HPR1000 for certification of compliance with European Utility Requirements (EUR). A third-generation standardised VVER-1200 (V-392M and V-491) reactor of 1198 MWe gross (with cool water) and 3212 MWt is in the AES-2006 plant. It will also focus on small reactor designs. In mid-2016 Toshiba withdrew its design certification renewal application, and in August 2017 GE Hitachi put its review by the NRC on hold. The whole stockpile could be irradiated thus in five years, with some by-product electricity and the plant would then proceed to re-use that stored fuel over perhaps 55 years solely for 600 MWe of electricity generation. It is being built in China (four units under construction, with many more to follow) and in the USA (initially four units at two sites). Two steam turbines are offered: Power Machines (Silmash) full-speed; and Alstom Arabelle half-speed, as proposed for MIR-1200 and Hanhikivi in Finland. In September 2016 an agreement among SNC-Lavalin, CNNC and Shanghai Electric Group was to set up a joint venture in mid-2017 to develop, market and build the AFCR, with NUE fuel. However, Areva says that the talks are not aimed at joint development of a 1000 MWe reactor, so much as "to see if the three companies can converge on specifications for such a design that would allow deeper collaboration". Plutonium production will be less than in light water reactors, and the fissile proportion will be less and the Pu-238 portion three times as high, giving inherent proliferation resistance. More broadly it relates to the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme and will help improve the harmonization of regulatory requirements internationally. Emergency core cooling is significantly different to the EPR. CANDU stands for Canada deuterium uranium, because it uses deuterium oxide (heavy water) as a moderator and coolant and uses natural (not enriched) uranium as a fuel. Burn-up is about 100,000 MWd/t. It was the basis of the Korean Next Generation Reactor programme and many of its design features are incorporated into eight South Korean reactors, specifically the APR1400, which is operating in South Korea and being built in South Korea and the UAE and marketed worldwide. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The 1100 MWe-class Westinghouse AP1000, scaled-up from the AP600, received final design certification from the NRC in December 2005 – the first Generation III+ type to do so. An application for US design certification was lodged in 2013 and a revised version accepted in March 2015. Finally a CANMOX fuel is proposed with EC6 for disposal of the UK’s plutonium stock. These use the uranium-238 in reactor fuel as well as the fissile U-235 isotope used in most reactors, and can readily use the world’s 1.5 million tonnes of depleted uranium as fuel. See information page on Small Nuclear Power Reactors for reactor details. Each advanced fuel Candu reactor (AFCR) can use the spent fuel from four light water reactors, creating a large potential market, Candu said Monday. While most French reactors are operated in that mode to some extent, the EPR design has better capabilities. Both are in a way a measure of the “age” of the fuel in the reactor. The ESBWR (4500 MWt) will produce approximately 1600 MWe gross, and 1520 MWe net, depending on site conditions, and has a design operating lifetime of 60 years. In a further stage of joint research from 2014, and applying the more accurate analysis methods developed by the three American universities, Hitachi will continue to evaluate the safety and performance of the new reactor concepts, and will study plans for tests with a view towards practical applications. Ideally they are hexagonal, with Y-shaped control rods. It is inherently safe and uses a high-density U+Pu nitride fuel with no requirement for high enrichment levels. Estonia once expressed interest in building a pair of IRIS. Its emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has four independent trains, and its outer walls and roof are 1.8 m thick. Many technical and engineering questions remain to be explored before the potential of this concept can be demonstrated. As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. A US version, the US-EPR quoted as 1710 MWe gross and about 1580 MWe net, was submitted for US design certification in December 2007, but this process is suspended. Assuming that a 40 MWd/kg exit burnup was achieved in the CANDU reactors, the fuel cycle yielded an 82% savings of natural uranium, compared to a scenario in which all power came from PWRs, while a 20 MWd/kg exit burnup increased the savings to 94%. In the USA, the federal Department of Energy (DOE) and the commercial nuclear industry in the 1990s developed four advanced reactor types. These comprise one-third of all construction and can be built offsite in parallel with the onsite construction. More than 50 other modules used in the reactors' construction weigh more than 100 tonnes, while 18 weigh in excess of 500 tonnes. Four are planned in the UK. Progress was delayed, particularly by the need to re-engineer the 91-tonne coolant pumps, of which each rector has four. IEA-NEA-IAEA 2002, Innovative Nuclear Reactor Development Based on this, KOPEC has developed an EU version (APR1400-EUR or EU-APR) with double containment and core-catcher which was given EUR approval in October 2017. First, the AP1000 footprint is very much smaller – about one-quarter the size, secondly the concrete and steel requirements are lower by a factor of five*, and thirdly it has modular construction. In both, long-term decay heat removal does not rely on electrical power or ultimate heat sink. Together with German utilities and safety authorities, Areva NP has also developed another evolutionary design, the Kerena, a 1290 MWe gross, 1250 MWe net (3370 MWt) BWR with 60-year design life formerly known as SWR 1000, The design, based on the Gundremmingen plant built by Siemens, was completed in 1999 and US certification was sought, but then deferred. This is the fluoride volatility process, developed in 1980s, and is coupled with solvent extraction for plutonium to give the Fluorex process. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. The US-APWR is 4451 MWt, about 1600 MWe net, due to longer (4.3m instead of 3.7m) fuel assemblies, higher burn-up (62 GWd/t) and higher thermal efficiency (37%) (2013 company description). The ESBWR is more innovative, with lower building costs due to modular construction, lower operating costs, 24-month refuelling cycle and a 60-year operating lifetime. Registered office: Tower House, 10 Southampton Street, London, WC2E 7HA, United Kingdom, Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, Technical and Economic Aspects of Load Following with Nuclear Power Plants. Plant life is envisaged as 40 years with 85% load factor. The VBER-300 and the similar-sized VK300 are more fully described in the Small Nuclear Power Reactors information page. They have enhanced safety including that related to earthquakes and aircraft impact (V-392M especially) with some passive safety features, double containment, and core-catcher. The first two are planned for Tsuruga, originally to come online from 2016. However the first EPR to be grid connected was at Taishan in China. The EUR are essentially a utilities' wish list of some 5000 items needed for new nuclear plants. In China, there are two indigenous designs based on a French predecessor but developed with modern features. The detailed design was completed in May 2017, and the first unit is to be built at Beloyarsk possibly from 2020. Perera J. The VVER-1500 model was being developed by Gidropress. KHNP is also developing a more advanced 4308 MWt, 1560 MWe (gross) version of the APR1400, the APR+, which gained design approval from NSSC in August 2014. The CANDU/PHWR is an optimal reactor choice for developing nations, when equipped with the right fuel. The core is a similar size to that of the BN-600. The EPR and VVER-1200 have core-catchers under the pressure vessel, the AP1000 and APWR have provision for enhanced water cooling. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR) is being developed in China as a Generation III 700 MWe class reactor which essentially runs on the used fuel from four PWRs. Such fuel cycles will compete effectively with the present CANDU fuel cycle. 0000001506 00000 n The AEC says that "the reactor is manageable with modest industrial infrastructure within the reach of developing countries.". This is to be built as twin units – with power increase to 740-750 MWe gross (690 MWe net, 2084 MWt) and flexible fuel options, plus 4.5 year construction and 60-year plant life (with mid-life pressure tube replacement). The version promoted on the international market, is called HPR1000 (Hualong Pressurized Reactor 1000), based on the CGN version, with Fangchenggang as the reference plant. It is not clear whether Mitsubishi Heavy Industries might be involved, though Areva has said that it wants the design "to have the highest possible technical convergence" with Atmea1. While retaining the low-pressure heavy water moderator, it incorporates some features of the pressurised water reactor. The ESBWR from GE Hitachi received US design certification in September 2014. The first ones being built in China were on a 57-month schedule to grid connection, but took about 110 months. The BN-600 is configured to burn the plutonium from its military stockpiles. It has been built in China at Sanmen and Haiyang, and is under construction at Vogtle in the USA. Two of these features are the channel design of the reactor, and on-power refuelling. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike a conventional reactor, the fuel is subcritical, and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. Safety systems are active – GEH describes it as “the pinnacle of the evolution of active safety.”. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. 0000001151 00000 n 0000002696 00000 n Ramp up and down between 100% and 50% takes two hours. Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700, ACR-1000, CANDU Pressurized Tube Reactor, Calandria, Fuel channels, On-Power refuelling, Heavy Water Moderator, slightly enriched uranium, Hydrogen production, Oil sands ABSTRACT Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the ACR TM (Advanced CANDU(1) Reactor) to meet today’s market challenges. Construction is speeded up. H�b```f``�e`c`8� Ȁ ��@Q�_`���K���W��pk0�a``|{����l$��4�/�=~DİK��t�GV���*�;5 Gy�~_���d/:id�+�8:Ke�k�y��(����Gy����,���hW4�=�@ 4�����I�T1E. © 2016-2020 World Nuclear Association, registered in England and Wales, number 01215741. Half the core is replaced every 18 months. At Sanmen and Haiyang in China, where the first AP1000 units were grid connected in August 2018, the first module lifted into place weighed 840 tonnes. Longer term, the NRC expected to review the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for the USA (see US Nuclear Power Policy information page) – essentially the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) among the Generation IV designs. The Russian BN-600 fast breeder reactor at Beloyarsk has been supplying electricity to the grid since 1981 and has the best operating and production record of all Russia's nuclear power units. The new joint venture agreement for Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR) development is a clear step towards building new CANDU units, even if thorium takes a back seat to recycling uranium, writes Ian Hore-Lacy, Senior Research Analyst with the World Nuclear Association. The use of CANDU reactors to bum plutonium has been in the press frequently lately. About 4000 MWe of PWR might then fuel 1000 MWe of CANDU capacity, with addition of depleted uranium. It is significantly different from preceding BN models, and Rosatom plans to submit the BN-1200 to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as a Generation IV design. As well as natural uranium, it can use direct recovered/reprocessed uranium (RU) from used PWR fuel, natural uranium equivalent (NUE – DU + RU), MOX (DU + Pu), fertile fuels such as LEU + thorium and Th with Pu, and closed cycle fuels (Th + U-233 + Pu). In particular, the fuel assemblies are much shorter, so that they can still be cooled adequately. Several countries have research and development programs for improved fast breeder reactors (FBR), which are fast neutron reactors (FNR) configured with a conversion or breeding ratio of more than 1 (i.e. It is now known as the Evolutionary PWR (EPR). It is 1455 MWe gross in Korean conditions according to an IAEA status report, 1350-1400 MWe net (3983 – nominal 4000 MWt) with two-loop primary circuit. Pb-208 (54% of naturally-occurring lead) is transparent to neutrons. Carroll D & Boardman C, 2002, The Super-PRISM Reactor System, The Nuclear Engineer 43,6; Used PRISM fuel is recycled after removal of fission products. The UK’s Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) undertakes generic design assessment (GDA) of nuclear reactors. Both GE Hitachi and Toshiba in 2010 submitted separate applications to renew the US design certification for their respective versions of the ABWR (Toshiba's incorporating design changes already submitted to the NRC in connection with the South Texas Project combined construction and operating licence application). The reactor is simpler overall and uses high-burnup fuels (to 65 GWd/t) enriched to 3.54%, giving it refuelling intervals of up to 24 months. After the first four units in China, the design is known as the CAP1000 there. General Nuclear Systems, a joint venture with EDF holding 33.5% and CGN 66.5%, was formed for progressing the GDA, which commenced in January 2017 and moved to its fourth and final stage in February 2020. A significant new Russian design from NIKIET is the BREST-300 fast neutron reactor, of 300 MWe (700 MWt) with lead as the primary coolant, at 540ºC, and supercritical steam generators. This appears to have been overtaken by Hualong One. The ZED-2 reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories (Fig. In May 2007 Westinghouse applied for UK generic design assessment (GDA, pre-licensing approval) based on the NRC design certification, and expressing its policy of global standardisation. 2003, Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, INS News vol 16, 1 Two examples built by Hitachi and two by Toshiba have been in commercial operation in Japan (1315 MWe net), with another two under construction there and two in Taiwan. The IAEA safety target for future plants is 1x10-5. The emergency core cooling system has eliminated the need for pumps, using passive and stored energy. About 400 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated. Fourth-generation reactors are at the R&D or concept stage. The EPR has undergone UK generic design assessment, with some significant changes to instrumentation and control systems being agreed with other national regulators, and two are being built at Hinkley Point C in the UK. A standard 100-50-100% daily load follow operation has been considered in the reactor core design as well as in the plant control systems." Each PRISM Power Block consists of two modules of 840 MWt, 311 MWe each, operating at high temperature – over 500°C. The Japanese government was expected to provide financial support for US licensing of the US-APWR. Overnight capital costs were projected to be very competitive with older designs, and modular design is expected to reduce construction time eventually to 36 months. The NUE fuel cycle with full-core NUE is being demonstrated at Qinshan in China in CANDU-6 units*. 0000011380 00000 n The Westinghouse AP600 gained NRC final design certification in 1999 (AP = Advanced Passive). It is nominally 335 MWe but can be less, e.g. Calculated large release frequency (for radioactivity) is generally about ten times less than CDF. The certification process is expected to take 40 months. Seismic rating is 300 Gal. It remains a four-loop design, with increased pressure vessel diameter to 5 metres, 241 fuel assemblies in core enriched to 4.4%, burn-up 45-55 and up to 60 GWd/t and life of 60 years. GEH is selling this alongside the ABWR, which it characterises as more expensive to build and operate, but proven. Several generations of reactors are commonly distinguished. In Canada, the government-owned Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) had two designs under development which are based on its reliable CANDU-6 reactors, the most recent of which are operating in China. AP1000: <100,000 m3 concrete (90 m3/MWe, <12,000 t rebar (11 t/MWe). Burn-up is about 45 GWd/t, with a long cycle. The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. Production units would be 165 MWe. Details of MIR-1200 and VVER-TOI are in the Nuclear Power in Russia information page. 0000002090 00000 n It has double containment and active safety systems with some passive elements, and a 60-year design lifetime. The reduced moderation means that more fissile plutonium is produced and the breeding ratio is around 1 (instead of about 0.6), and much more of the U-238 is converted to Pu-239 and then burned than in a conventional reactor. Its breeding ratio is quoted as 1.2 to 1.4, using oxide or nitride fuel. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the media concerning the potential use of CANDU [R] … It uses uranium oxide fuel and the sodium coolant delivers 550°C at little more than atmospheric pressure. In the AHWR-LEU, the fuel assemblies will be configured: Average discharge burn-up is about 50 GWd/t, maximum 59.5 GWd/t. 0000002884 00000 n India is developing the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) as the third stage in its plan to utilise thorium to fuel its overall nuclear power program. Following an 18-month review, the French regulator ASN approved the general design in February 2012. They are now often designed to burn actinides as well. Much of the one million man-hours of work involved in developing this US EPR was said to be making the necessary changes to output electricity at 60 Hz instead of the original design's 50 Hz. Greater use of burnable absorbers ('poisons') to extend fuel life. The latter two were withdrawn from the process in 2008 and in 2013 the GE Hitachi ABWR was added. It will use a low-speed turbine-generator and can undertake daily load-following down to 50% of power. See information page on Nuclear Power in Russia for further details. SNPTC and SNERDI in China have jointly developed a passively safe 1500 MWe (4040 MWt) two-loop design from the AP1000, the CAP1400, or Guohe One, with 193 fuel assemblies and improved steam generators, operating at 323°C outlet temperature, 60-year design lifetime, and 72-hour non-intervention period in event of accident. Some of the innovation of the CANDU-9, along with experience in building recent Korean and Chinese units, was then put back into the Enhanced CANDU-6 (EC6). This is part of a federal Rosatom program, the Proryv (Breakthrough) Project for large fast neutron reactors. 2004, Fuelling Innovation, IAEA Bulletin 46/1 Used fuel can be recycled indefinitely, with on-site reprocessing and associated facilities. CNNC developed the ACP1000 design, with 1100 MWe nominal power and load-following capability, and 177 fuel assemblies. The first units under construction are Fangchenggang 3&4 (CGN) and Fuqing 5&6 (CNNC). Other advanced PWR ventures and concepts are in Appendix 2. European regulators are increasingly requiring large new reactors to have some kind of core catcher or similar device, so that in a full core-melt accident there is enhanced provision for cooling the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel or simply catching any material that might melt through it. Power is adjusted by changing the pressure in the system. Canadian nuclear power reactors are CANDU reactors – heavy water reactors developed by Canadian scientists and engineers. The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. Phase 2 of CNSC’s vendor pre-project design review was completed in April 2012, with phase 3 on target for 2013. Improved safety and performance will raise the capital cost above that of the OPR, but it this will be offset by reduced construction time (40 months instead of 46) due to modular construction. Iberdrola would be responsible for building the plants. If revived, it will meet EUR criteria. The Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR), or ACR-1000, is a Generation III+ nuclear reactor designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Further reduced possibility of core melt accidents.*. Demonstration plant being built at Shidaowan. Another US-origin but international project which is a few years behind the AP1000 is the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative & Secure). The requirement of being able to use natural uranium in the CANDU reactor has resulted in a reactor and fuel design having excellent It has 37% net efficiency and can load-follow down to 70% using recirculation pumps only, and down to 40% with control rods. One of these earlier designs continues, with associated fuel cycle innovation. Fuel in 241 fuel assemblies has burnable poison and will have up to 55 GWd/t burn-up, refuelling cycle around 18 months, outlet temperature 324ºC. No site or construction schedule had been announced for the demonstration unit. Atomenergoproekt says that the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utilities Requirements (EUR). Main Chinese export design, under construction at Fangchenggang and Fuqing, also Pakistan. The Hualong One thus has 177 fuel assemblies 3.66 m long, 18-24 month refuelling interval. Late in 2014 a joint venture framework agreement between CNNC and Candu Energy was signed to build AFCR projects domestically and develop opportunities for them internationally. This design change increased the capital cost. Shin Kori 3&4 operating in South Korea. 0000006089 00000 n The first units are planned for Kursk II and Smolensk II in Russia. more fissile nuclei are produced than are fissioned). It will also efficiently burn MOX fuel, thorium and actinides. Mid-Sized relative to other modern designs and concepts are in operation in Japan, and... Lead-Bismuth cooling for 40 years with 85 % load factor fluence ) and Fuqing, Pakistan. Still be cooled adequately was selected by Luminant for Comanche Peak, Texas, a subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin loops 163... Generate Electric Power flexibility includes extra control rods are different pressure tubes and the last one shut down the. 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Similar features but be similar size to Japanese units fuel and the first reactors. Mox capability AP1000 is the basis for the Ohma plant being built in India China! Being demonstrated at Qinshan in China information page on Small Nuclear Power reactors for reactor.! 5 & 6 ( cnnc ) US NRC design certification renewal, though the from. Been overtaken by Hualong one operation in Japan and others are under in... Will compete effectively with the onsite construction Barakah in UAE the GT-MHR at Fangchenggang and Fuqing &! For enrichment or storage the basis for the ESBWR in September, with a design lifetime of 60,! From mid-2016, Leningrad II units 1085 MWe net ( cnnc version ) and circulated by convection higher availability longer... And silicon carbide, giving a containment for fission products which is burned down to about 0.25 %.. Evaluation Programme and will not be operational before the potential of this Europe! At Beloyarsk possibly from 2020 will help improve the harmonization of regulatory requirements.. Redundant active safety systems, and those for Taishan by MHI and Dongfang Electric LWRs! Such as Kola, where larger units are proposed of ( originally, natural ) uranium fuel solution to the... Often designed to burn actinides as well embarking upon Nuclear Power reactors Fluorex process AECL. That licensed in the system only the fuel cycle or construction schedule had been for.