The female hierarchy, from the highest to lowest, ran: 1. Two rich men named Jāvīdān b. Šahrak (or Sahrak) and Abū ʿEmrān were then living in the highland around the mountain of Baḏḏ and contending for the leadership of the highland’s Ḵorramī inhabitants. The reports state that Babak called Persians to arms, seized castles and strong points, thereby barring roads to his enemies. 2-6; Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/4, pp. 2821). 517-18, 508). 46-49. Many of the old writers, particularly those of Sunnite persuasion, assert that Ḵorramīs influenced and infiltrated the Qarmaṭī and Esmāʿīlī movements, and some modern scholars take the same view while others are more cautious (Madelung, p. 65; B. Lewis, The Origins of Ismailism, Cambridge, 1940, pp. While Baḷʿamī and others describe Bābak’s following as made up of local farmers and poor people, several writers call them “thieves, heretics, and profligates” (ʿAwfī, pt. 1, chap. Jāvīdān, when stuck in the snow on his way back from Zanjān to Baḏḏ, had to seek shelter at Belālābād and happened to go into the house of Bābak’s mother. The best-known figure along these lines is Banu, wife of Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE), who led a resistance cell with him until they were betrayed, captured, and executed under the Abbasid Caliphate. 2815) al-Moʿtaṣem gave Otroja, the daughter of a high-ranking Turkish officer named Ašnās, in marriage to Afšīn’s son Ḥasan and laid on a splendid wedding party. Babak’s relationship with censorship began before he was born. 2002: Sani Yakubu 1463: Not François Villon. 1-9, 11-12. WHO IS BABAK KHORRAMDIN? ... a fall of several thousands of meters would lead to certain death. 466-71. The epithet Khorrami or Khorramdin given to Babak in the sources denotes membership of this sect. 96-97). 53-61, no. There are several paths to the castle, though the normal route soars stairs behind the seasonal Babak … The year of this great man’s death is January 17th. His mother, according to Faṣīḥ (I, p. 283), was a one-eyed woman named Māhrū from a village in a district belonging to Azerbaijan. In recent years, thousands of Iranians, mostly Azeri speaking activists, gather at Babak Fortress usually during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin… Dīnavarī’s mention of a Ḵorramī group named Fāṭemīya after Abū Moslem’s daughter and of Bābak’s membership of it is repeated in Taʾrīḵ Baḡdād (X, p. 207; see also Madelung, pp. Neẓām-al-Molk, pp. The Achaemenid Empire followed a patriarchal paradigm but, within that framework, women had more rights and responsibilities than in any other ancient civilization except that of Egypt. 158-60). Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. When Bābak heard of the arrival of Jaʿfar and Aytāḵ, he is said to have informed Theophilus, “Moʿtaṣem has no one else left, so he has sent his tailor and his cook to fight me” (Sadighi, p. 257). ), Afšīn refused, but when Afšīn demanded hostages, Bābak offered his son or others of his followers and asked Afšīn to restrain the troops from attacking. Bābak must have absorbed ideas and beliefs current among the Ḵorramīs after his entry into Jāvīdān’s service and adhesion to the sect. The year of this great man’s death is January 17th. ), or whether it was subsequently invented to argue a link between Abū Moslem’s and Bābak’s revolts or to explain the Ḵorramī veneration for Abū Moslem (cf. The fullest account of Bābak’s career comes from a lost Aḵbār Bābak by Wāqed b. M. M. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd, Beirut, n.d., pp. 93, l60). 13-14), the odes in Abū Tammām’s dīvān, also his invectives against Afšīn after the latter’s fall, and praises for Moḥammad b. Ḥomayd Ṭūsī and his campaign against Bābak in the dīvān of Boḥtorī (see also Nafīsī, pp. The Iranian Archeology Department has identified the site with ruins (called Qaḷʿa-ye Jomhūr, probably after the surrounding Jomhūr mountains) in the present district of Ahar, located 50 km from Ahar town on a height above the left bank of a tributary of the Qarasū 3 km southwest of the village of Kalībar (Report of the Department’s mission in the summer of 1345 Š./1966). Babak’s relationship with censorship began before he was born. 37-39; Abū Dolaf Mesʿar b. Mohalhel Ḵazrajī, al-Resāla al-ṯānīa, ed. All the accounts of Bābak are biased, some begin with curses on him (e.g. 2814). The poet ʿAṭṭār, however, attributes this gesture to the crucified mystic Ḥosayn b. Manṣūr Ḥallāj (Manṭeq al-ṭayr, ed. The caliph regularly sent him instructions on tactics and precautions, and gave him every encouragement. Bābak and his men remained in control of the highland and with their ambushes and surprise attacks, often frustrated Afšīn’s plans. The excitement over the fighting and the defeat of Bābak is echoed in contemporary Arabic literature, e.g., a verse description of Bābak on the gibbet quoted by Rāḡeb Eṣfahānī (Moḥāżarāt al-odabāʾ, Beirut, 1961, III, p. 199), poems by Abū Moḥammad Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm Mawṣelī (155/172-235/850) in praise of Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm Moṣʿabī (see Ḥoṣrī Qayrawānī, Zahr al-ādāb, Cairo, III, pp. He released the men and returned the women and children to those shown to be their husbands, fathers, or guardians. 578f. First Bābak’s hands and feet were cut off, then at the caliph’s command his mangled body was strung on a gibbet in the outskirts of Sāmarrā. Madelung, p. 64; Amoretti, pp. 8, pp. When he had grown up he went to Tabrīz, where he spent two years in the service of Moḥammad b. Rawwād Azdī before returning at the age of eighteen to his home at Belālābād. Required fields are marked *, © Copyright 2020 ExecutedToday.com :: All Rights Reserved :: A WordPress joint Theme originally by WarAxe at Negative99, modified by Brian at Logjamming Contact the Headsman. Babak Khorram-Din (b. ca. 61-64, 201-03. After twenty-two years of persecution, Babak Khorramdin was tortured and executed by the betrayal of one of his friends, Afshin, by the ruler. Ebn Qotayba, Ketāb al-maʿāref, ed. Bābak himself got away to the Mūqān plain and thence to Baḏḏ (Ṭabarī, III, pp. Details of numerous engagements between Bābak’s men and Afšīn’s troops before the fall of Baḏḏ are given by Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835-222/837) and recapitulated by Nafīsī (pp. Another conjecture is that Afšīn sacrificed Bābak because he was afraid of being supplanted as commander of the anti-Ḵorramī expedition by his Taherid rivals (Nafīsī, p. 68). Sayyed Mortażā, p. 184; Mostawfī, Tārīḵ-egozīda, p. 316). In 212/827-28 the caliph sent a force under Moḥammad b. Ḥomayd Ṭūsī to punish Zorayq, who had rebelled, and to subdue Bābak. A later incident also boded ill for Bābak. It can be inferred that Bābak won wide support among peasants and poor villagers of the Azerbaijan highlands who hoped for a better future through the revolt’s success (Amoretti, pp. 1, chap. According to some sources his head was later sent around for display in other cities and in Khorasan. 3-18 and plates 2, 4, 5, 9, 11; Torbatī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, pp. ʿA.-Ḥ. However, it was then renamed in honor of the medieval Persian revolutionary leader Babak Khorramdin who rebelled against the Abbasids. 5). Iran III/2, pp. 1177, 1205) and Ebn al-Aṯīr (s.a. 220/835 and 222/837) about Ḵorramī merry-making and wine drinking even in wartime confirm one of the sect’s reputed characteristics (see Amoretti, p. 517), but their tales of Bābak’s promiscuity and abduction of pretty Armenian girls seem inconsistent with another statement of Ṭabarī (III, p. 1227) that the women wept when they saw Bābak captive in Afšīn’s camp. On or before that date, according to some sources, Ḥātem b. Harṯama, the governor of Armenia, learned that his father Harṯama b. Aʿyan had, despite loyal service to al-Maʾmūn, been flogged and imprisoned on the caliph’s order and been killed in prison at the behest of the minister Fażl b. Sahl (Ṭabarī, II, p. 1026). Yūsofī, Abū Moslem, sardār-e Ḵorāsān, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966, pp. 2807) and then taken to Afšīn’s camp at Barzand on 10 Šawwāl 222/15 September 837. WHO IS BABAK KHORRAMDIN? The persistence of Bābak’s revolt and the failure of the caliphal generals and expeditionary forces to quell it had various reasons. 405-06; Sīāsat-nāma, p. 319; Mojmal, pp. One of those to whom he wrote was Bābak (or probably Jāvīdān), who was greatly encouraged thereby (Ebn Qotayba, p. 198; Yaʿqūbī, II, p. 563; Sadighi, p. 238 n. 3). Gradually a large multitude joined him. In most of the sources the start of Bābak’s revolt is placed in the year 201/816-17 in al-Maʾmūn’s reign, when the Ḵorramīs began to infiltrate neighboring districts and create insecurity in Azerbaijan. Bābak rejected the document without opening it, and after sending the messengers away fled to Armenia with four or five male and female members of his family and one bodyguard. ʿĪsā either ran for his life or was killed by Bābak (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1072). B. 63-64, 65; Amoretti, pp. Captured at last — he had spurned a guarantee of safety with that timeless insurrectionary sentiment, “Better to live for just a single day as a ruler than to live for forty years as an abject slave” — he had his hands and legs struck off in the presence of the caliph. E. Marin, New Haven, 1951, index. Eṣṭaḵrī (p. 203) and Ebn Ḥawqal (p. 266) state that Ḵorramīs recited the Koran in mosques, but authors such as Baḡdādī (p. 269) describe this as a ruse to conceal disbelief under the pretense of being Muslim. 6-42. His father was expelled from University and arrested for being a member of the opposition and a political activist. Principal Wife (mother of the king’s heir) 3. This general succeeded after some delay in capturing Zorayq and dispersing his group of rebels and then, having obtained reinforcements and made thorough preparations, set out against Bābak. Through the rituals, the spirits of the martyrs are embodied and the bodies of the participants are spiritualized. Access is challenging and … The numerous revolts in the two or three centuries after the Arab conquest point to widespread discontent among the Iranian elements from whom the leaders, including Bābak, drew their support, and perhaps also to a desire to return to the past. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. 1223-24). Ṭabarī, The Reign of al-Muʿtaṣim, tr. Before Afšīn’s departure, al-Moʿtaṣem had sent Abū Saʿīd Moḥammad b. Yūsof Marvazī to Ardabīl with instructions to rebuild the forts between Zanjān and Ardabīl which Bābak had demolished and to make the roads safe by posting guards. Babak's Iranianizing rebellion, from its base in Azerbaijan in northwestern Iran, called for a return of the political glories of the Iranian past; the Khorramdin rebellion of Babak spread to the Western and Central parts of Iran and lasted more than twenty years before it was defeated when Babak was betrayed. 5). Babak Khorramdin was held in the presence of the caliph in the city of Samarra and was sentenced to death in 838 AD. G. Sadighi, Les mouvements religieux iraniens au IIe et au IIIe siècle de l’hégire, Paris, 1938, pp. The coupling of his mother’s name Māhrū “Belle” with the description “one-eyed” also looks like a sneer. 282ff. Merdās); its attribution to Bābak may be a disguised reference to his and his henchmen’s readiness to kill their enemies (Zarrīnkūb, 1355, p. 237). Jāvīdān therefore asked the woman for permission to take her son away to manage his farms and properties, and offered to send her fifty dirhams a month from Bābak’s salary. The remains consisting of fortifications and a large building rest on a mountaintop 2,300-2,600 m above sea level, surrounded on all sides by ravines 400-600 m deep. Armenia was close to Bābak’s territory and had contacts with him but occasionally suffered from his raids. Banu and Babak Khoramdin are considered as one of the most heroic freedom fighters of Persia who initiated the Khurramite movement. Qal’eh Babak. Hist. Most of them, including Afšīn who was one of their number, supported the caliph’s action against Bābak. The epithet Khorrami or Khorramdin given to Babak in the sources denotes membership of this sect. 838: Babak Khorramdin. Bābak, losing hope, came out to meet him and requested a safe-conduct from the caliph. This article is available in print.Vol. 248-49) but according to one account (Sīāsat-nāma, p. 361) he first sent a force against Bābak, who took refuge in a castle. Aḥmad b. Jonayd was taken prisoner by Bābak while Zorayq failed to prosecute the war, and al-Maʾmūn then put Ebrāhīm b. Layṯ b. Fażl in charge. 233ff. Our information about Bābak and his revolt comes almost entirely from adversaries. 90, 182). The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. According to some authors (e.g., Neẓām-al-Molk, Sīāsat-nāma, pp. They repeatedly captured supplies which Afšīn had ordered from Marāḡa and Šervān. There is no means of knowing whether the kinship with Abū Moslem, considered probable by Dīnavarī, was a fact or a pretense designed by Bābak (as by other rebel leaders) to gain support among people who cherished Abū Moslem’s memory (Ḡ.-Ḥ. Further Ḵorramī stirrings are reported: in the reign of al-Moʿtaṣem’s successor al-Wāṯeq and as late as 300/912-13 (Sīāsat-nāma, pp. Bābak’s brother ʿAbd-Allāh was sent to Baghdad, where he was similarly executed and gibbeted by Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm Moṣʿabī. The local ruler, Sahl b. Sonbāṭ (on whom see Nafīsī, pp. 531-42. ©2020 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 168-69) tells how the minister Ḥasan b. Sahl, like several dignitaries, was reluctant to dismount and salute Afšīn but dared not disobey the caliph’s command. The figures given for the strength of Bābak’s army, such as 100,000 men (Abu’l-Maʿālī), 200,000 (Masʿūdī, Tanbīh, p. 323), or innumerable (Tabṣerat al-ʿawāmm, p. 184; Baḡdādī, p. 267) are doubtless highly exaggerated but at least indicate that it was large. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. On one occasion al-Moʿtaṣem dispatched Jaʿfar Dīnār known as Ḵayyāṭ (the Tailor), who had been a senior general in al-Maʾmūn’s reign, and Aytāḵ the Turk, a slave-soldier who superintended the caliphal kitchen, with reinforcements and money for Afšīn and also several ass-loads of iron spikes to be strewn around the camp as a precaution against night raids. To deal with them al-Moʿtaṣem sent a force under Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm b. Moṣʿab, who was also made governor of Jebāl. Ḥasan b. Sonbāṭ was rewarded by the caliph with a gift of 100,000 dirhams, a jeweled belt, and the crown of a patricius, and his son Moʿāwīa also received 100,000 dirhams. The number of Bābak’s men taken prisoner is given as 3,309, and the number of his captured male and female relatives as 30 or more. 353-54; Abu’l-Maʿālī, chap. The fort is named after Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian warlord who managed to resist Arab invaders until his death in 838 CE. Ḥātem b. Harṯama therefore planned to rebel and wrote letters to local commanders urging them to defy al-Maʾmūn, but at this juncture he died. 795, according to some other sources 798 — d. 7th January 838) was a Persian freedom fighter and one of the leaders of the Khorram-Dinan (Persian, "Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. S. Nafīsī, Bābak-e Ḵorramdīn, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1342 Š./1963 (comprehensive study with full list of sources; first published in Mehr 1-2, 1312-13 Š./1933-34). His stronghold Baḏḏ was situated in impenetrable mountains with intricate defiles and passes, where, according to Baḷʿamī (see Kāmbaḵš Fard, Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/4, Dey, 1345 Š./November-December, 1966-67, pp. Wāqed adds that Bābak in his youth worked as a groom and servant for Šebl b. Monaqqī (Moṯannā ?) Early life. The name has been explained as referring to Khorrama, the wife of Mazdak ( Sīāsat.nāma , p. 319; Mojmal al-Tawarikh , p. 354) or to a village named Khorram near Ardabil (Middle-Persian Artāvīllā ) (surmise of Nasr quoted by Yaqut. Pellat, sec. Banu, Wife of Babak (d. c. 838 CE) Banu was the wife of the hero and freedom fighter Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE) who fought against the occupying forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. 5, p. 299) that Bābak used to play the tanbūr and sing songs for the people while working as a fruit vendor in the village. Ṭabarī states that none of the Ḵorramīs dared obey Afšīn’s order to take the caliph’s safe-conduct to Bābak and that when Afšīn’s emissaries reached him, he said in an angry message to his son, “Perhaps I shall survive, perhaps not. 1, chap. 267-68). Bābak’s hand was greatly strengthened by his possession of this inaccessible mountain stronghold, to which the Arabic poet Boḥtorī, amongst others, refers in verses quoted by Yāqūt (I, p. 361). After his emergence, the Ḵorramī movement was centered in Azerbaijan and reinforced with volunteers from elsewhere, probably including descendants of Abū Moslem’s supporters and other enemies of the ʿAbbasid caliphate. Afšīn used this information to lure Bābak into a full engagement, in which many of Bābak’s comrades were killed. 1221, 1223), suggest that they were of noble family (Sadighi, pp. Babak Khorramdin, an Iranian revolutionary, he did not care what would happen to him, he would die for his country. F. Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1850, p. 198. He in fact chose or was ordered to go to Khorasan (Sadighi, pp. His father’s name is variously given as Merdas/Merdās (Samʿānī, ed. 1174-78; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VI, pp. The mentions of his doings in Armenian chronicles have been assembled by Nafīsī (pp. Hist. Entry Filed under: Azerbaijan,Caliphate,Capital Punishment,Death Penalty,Disfavored Minorities,Dismembered,Early Middle Ages,Execution,Famous,God,Gruesome Methods,History,Iran,Martyrs,Persia,Power,Racial and Ethnic Minorities,Revolutionaries,Summary Executions, Tags: 838, abassids, azeri, babak khorramdin, Caliphate, islam, january 4, khurramites, nationalism, zoroastrian, zoroastrianism, Your email address will not be published. To reach this wonderful castle, first, you have to move toward Kaleybar. During Babak's execution, the Caliph's henchmen first cut off his legs and hands in order to convey the most devastating message to his followers. ; II, pp. Bābak’s boldness, shrewdness, and efficiency in the military leadership of the long struggle, and the trust placed in him by his supporters are certainly remarkable (on his personality and ideas, see Sadighi, pp. (Optional) Enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag. Wāqed’s account of what happened next is, in summary, as follows. 449-51). The legend says that Bābak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouring out of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood. The brewing revolution found a leader in Babak Khorramdin, a zealous follower of the Zoroastrian prophet Mazdak. At that time there were Ḵorramīs scattered in many regions besides Azerbaijan, reportedly in Ṭabarestān, Khorasan, Balḵ, Isfahan, Kāšān, Qom, Ray, Karaj, Hamadān, Lorestān, Ḵūzestān, Baṣra, and Armenia (Nafīsī, pp. 362-63). In the same context Ṭabarī has a story that Afšīn granted a request from Bābak to spare him from surveillance by the appointed guard-officer, because this officer “was slippery-handed and slept beside him and stank unbearably.” The statements of Ṭabarī (III, pp. 19-23, no. Bābak Fort or Babak Castle (Persian: دژ بابک or قلعه بابک Azerbaijani language: بابک قلعه سي), also known as the Immortal Castle or Republic Castle, is a large citadel and National Symbol of Iranians on the top of a mountain in the Arasbaran forests, which is located 6 km southwest of Kalibar City in northwestern Iran. 5, p. 300). 406-07) and was probably used by Maqdesī (Badʾ VI, pp. 417-33, esp. Thus contemporary circumstances as well as popular dislike of Arab rule favored Bābak and his followers. “Bābak-e Ḵorramdīn,” “Ḵorramdīnān.” Ebn al-ʿEbrī (Bar Hebraeus), Taʾrīḵ moḵtaṣar al-dowal, Beirut, 1958, p. 139. I have been known as the commander. ʿA. BĀBAK ḴORRAMĪ (d. Ṣafar, 223/January, 838), leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 3rd/9th century which engaged the forces of the caliph for twenty years before it was crushed in 222/837. According to Yaʿqūbī (Taʾrīḵ II, pp. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. 230-36). Babak Khorramdin was one of the main Iranian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān, which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. ʿAlī in Ṭabarī, ʿAlī b. Ṣadaqa known as Zorayq according to Ebn al-Aṯīr) to govern Armenia and Azerbaijan and organize the war, and put Aḥmad b. Jonayd Eskāfī in command of an expedition against Bābak. His father died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalan district when Babak was in his teens and the responsibility of his two brothers and mother fell on his shoulders. babak is the arabicised form of the Iranian name Pāpak. S. J. Torābī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Āṯār-e bāstānī-e Āḏarbāyjān II, Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1957, pp. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. Parvīz, “Ḵorramdīnān wa qīām-e Bābak barā-ye eḥyā-ye esteqlāl-e Īrān,” Barrasīhā- ye tārīḵī 1, 1345 Š./1966, pp. 1003-04; and Nafīsī, p. 21). According to Wāqed, Bābak’s father, after the birth of Bābak, died from wounds suffered in a fight during a journey to the Sabalān district. All considered, it may be said that Bābak’s motives and actions were anti-caliphal, anti-Arab, and to that extent anti-Muslim (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1226; Sadighi, pp. In most of these accounts, other than Dīnavarī’s, a note of sarcasm and hostility can be perceived. Bābak’s aims, however, were clearly not shared by the Iranian princes and nobles like Afšīn (except Māzyār), being incompatible with their ambition to regain power and wealth (Zarrīnkūb, 1355, p. 232). 147-48. BĀBAK ḴORRAMI. The caliph appointed ʿAlī b. Hešām, the governor of Jebāl, Qom, Isfahan, and Azerbaijan, with the responsibility to lead the operations against Bābak; allegedly he oppressed the inhabitants, killing men and confiscating properties, and even planned to kill al-Maʾmūn’s emissary ʿOjayf b. Iranian Azarbaijanis gather at Babak Castle during the first weekend in July for the annual commemoration of Babak Khorramdin. In the subsequent battle near Hamadān several thousand (60,000 in Ṭabarī and Ebn al-Aṯīr) Ḵorramīs were killed, but a large number escaped to Byzantine territory, whence they came back later to resume their fight (Ṭabarī, III, p. 1165; Ebn al-Aṯīr, VI, p. 441; Sīāsat-nāma, pp. 265, 275; Amoretti, p. 509). our one-of-a-kind custom playing card deck, much to the displeasure of Iranian authorities, 1879: Juan Oliva Moncusi, attempted regicide, 1794: Nicolas Luckner, German marshal of France, 1568: Eighty-four Valenciennes iconoclasts, 1897: The Bicol martyrs of Philippines independence, 1581: Edmund Campion, Ralph Sherwin and Alexander Briant, 1617: A miller of Manberna, the hangman’s last, 2009: Ehsan Fatahian, Iranian Kurdish activist, 1066: John Scotus, sacrificed to Radegast, 1801: Hyacinth Moise, Haitian Revolution general, 1738: George Whalley and Dean Briant, wife-murderers, Eleventh Hour: Executed Today’s (cursory) 11th annual report, 1880: James Madison Wyatt Stone, landing on his feet. Babak Khorramdin (c 795/798-838) was born to a Zoroastrian family of Azerbaijan close to the city of Artavilla (modern Ardabil) in north-western Iran and the southwest Caspian region. Ḵorramī libertinism has probably also been exaggerated (Madelung, p. 65); for example, the public appearance of Bābak and Jāvīdān’s widow at their wedding does not mean that they were unmindful of marriage obligations (see Sadighi, p. 214), and none of the allegations of libertinism made against Bābak and his followers can be taken as certain or trustworthy. Babak incited his followers to rise in rebellion against the caliphal regime. Babak Khorramdin پرگار: بابک خرمدین; Zoroaster پرگار: زرتشت کیست؟ شخصیتی تاریخی یا افسانهای؟ Iran’s Lost Opportunities in the War مستند جام زهر؛ فرصتهای از دست رفته ایران در جنگ ساخته حسین باستانی This gives proof of his great love for his homeland. More encounters took place with heavy losses to both sides and finally Afšīn reached the mountain facing the gate of Baḏḏ and camped there, only a mile away. 187-280 (sources pp. 95a-b, 202b, 70a. ... a fall of several thousands of meters would lead to certain death. BĀBAK ḴORRAMĪ (d. Ṣafar, 223/January, 838), leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 3rd/9th century which engaged the forces of the caliph for twenty years before it was crushed in 222/837. This general fought Bābak in several battles but without success. in Īrān-nāma 2/1, 1362 Š./1983, pp. 795, according to some other sources 798 — d. 7th January 838) was a Persian freedom fighter and one of the leaders of the Khorram-Dinan (Persian, "Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. 504-05); but none had the scale and duration of Bābak’s revolt, which pinned down caliphal armies for twenty years. Babak by Nafisi.djvu 3,249 × 4,931, 251 pages; 11.45 MB Babak Khorramdin on Russia USSR mint cover from 20.03.1990 URSS.jpg 626 × 439; 109 KB Babək Xaçmaz.jpg 1,536 × 2,048; 361 KB Tanūḵī, Nešwār al-moḥāżara wa aḵbār al-moḏākara, ed. 1108f.). When Bābak came back and spoke to Jāvīdān, he impressed Jāvīdān with his shrewdness despite his lack of fluency of speech. 991-1024, Pers. ʿAmr Tamīmī, which is quoted in the Fehrest of Ebn al-Nadīm (ed. ʿA. His fortress is mountainous northern Iran still stands … and has latterly become a meeting-ground for advocates of “greater Azerbaijan” on the occasion of Babak’s birthday in July, much to the displeasure of Iranian authorities. He was then gibbetedalive whilst sewn into a cow's skin with th… Under Bābak’s leadership the Ḵorramīs, who are described as having been before Bābak’s time peaceful farmers, refraining from killing or harming other people (Maqdesī, Badʾ IV, pp. Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. Your email address will not be published. Babak Khorramdin was born in the 8th century in Balal Abad region of Azerbaijan, close to the city of Ardebil. 5). Afšīn entered the castle and had it demolished after it had been plundered (Ṭabarī, III, pp. 156-57). According to most of the sources, al-Moʿtaṣem not only made Afšīn governor of Azerbaijan and seconded high-ranking officers to serve under him, but also ordered exceptionally large salaries, expense allowances, and rations for him; Afšīn was to receive 10,000 dirhams per day spent on horseback and 5,000 dirhams per day not so spent. 2809), a story which, if true, shows what a relief Bābak’s fall had been for the caliphal government. Two verses of Moḥammad b. ... After his father’s death in his early teen, he was given the responsibility of his 2 brothers and mother during a traditional Zartosht ceremony in holy Odlaq (Fire-temple), which used to involve a glass of Azeri wine and wearing a purple ribbon around body. 247-48; Dāʾerat al-maʿāref-e fārsī, s.v. Babak fort is located in East Azerbaijan, 13 kilometers from Kaleybar and 193 kilometers from Tabriz, on the mountain with 2300 meters height. M.-T. Dānešpažūh, FIZ 10, 1341 Š./1962, pp. 472-75). Babak began his career as a guerrilla fighter, launching lightning raids to seize isolated mountain fortresses, including his famously impenetrable castle of Ghaleye Babak. Baḏḏ was not Bābak’s only castle, however, as there are mentions of several others, some of which can be identified with surviving ruins (Nafīsī, pp. Banu, Wife of Babak (d. c. 838 CE) Banu was the wife of the hero and freedom fighter Babak Khorramdin (d. 838 CE) who fought against the occupying forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. Eqbāl, Tehran, 1313 Š./1934, p. 184. Babak Khorramdin . M. Farroḵ, Mašhad, 1341 Š./1962, I, pp. Access is challenging and involves an arduous uphill walk that takes one to two hours. The woman told Bābak of her husband’s death and added that she was going to announce it to the community the next day, when she would also claim Bābak as Jāvīdān’s successor, who would restore the religion of Mazdak and lead the community to triumph and prosperity. The legacy of strong Persian women continued after Banu, however, and remains a source of pride in the present day. A Zoroastrian son of northwest Iran’s Azerbaijan region, Babak rose to head a movement at once political and religious rooted in cultural preservation against the Arab-dominated caliphate. 365-66), when one of Bābak’s hands had been cut off, he made his face red by smearing blood on it with his other hand, and when al-Moʿtaṣem asked why, he answered that it was because loss of blood causes pallor and he did not want anyone to suppose that he was pale with fear (Sadighi, pp. Where is Babak Fort? During Bābak's execution, the Caliph's henchmen first cut off his legs and hands in order to convey the most devastating message to his followers. Then Jāvīdān’s widow married Bābak in a simple ceremony in the presence of all (Fehrest, pp. Abu’l-Moẓaffar Esferāʾīnī, al-Tabṣīr fi’l-dīn, Cairo, 1359/1940. 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