Post hoc analysis with Mann-Whitney U test was performed using Bonferroni correction to test the differences between groups. Keywords: Biofilms; Dental implants; Laser therapy; Microbial viability. tested the adhesives Clearfil™ SE Bond, Xeno® IV (Dentsply, York, Pennsylvania, USA) and Tokuyma Bond Force® (Tokuyma Dental, Japan) in laser-treated dentin with Er, Cr:YSSG laser with 3.5 W, 60% water, and 65% air, and an energy density of 109.4 J/cm2, obtaining the best result with IV Xeno® adhesive (average of 10.4 MPa).[14]. [8], The studies on adhesion to dentin prepared with Er,Cr:YSGG show contradictory results, yet there is no consensus on what are the best laser parameters and the best adhesive material to use.[9]. There was also a risk of a potential bias in this review related to the language, since the selection was reduced to articles written in English only. laser treatment. 2017;62:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.04.011 Tables ​Tables33 and ​and44 show the analysis of the bond strength considering the adhesive, the laser settings, and the type of surface conditioning, and the selected articles are described below. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal therapy using both an Er;Cr:YSGG laser + SRP and SRP alone, lead to significant im- 1993;72(9):1304-9. doi: 10.1177/00220345930720090801 You may notice problems with Photomed Laser Surg. Influence of different treatment approaches on the removal of early plaque biofilms and the viability of SAOS2 osteoblasts grown on titanium implants. The effect of different cleaning methods on the surface and temperature of failed titanium implants: an in vitro study. Additionally, the bactericidal effectiveness of laser irradiation was determined by estimating the percentage of dead to total bacteria after 72 hours of biofilm formation and decontamination procedure. [ Links ], 30- Schwarz F, Sculean A, Romanos G, Herten M, Horn N, Scherbaum W, et al. The treatment time in this study was shorter compared to that study30 for the smaller sample size, with an area of 0.28 cm2 compared to 0.7 cm2. Laser irradiation was performed in non-contact mode at a distance of 0.5 ~ 1 mm from the disc surface by a pain-ended cylindrical tip with a diameter of 850 μm to avoid any mechanical damage caused by contact mode according to Matsuyama, et al.29 (2003). The use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in restorative dentistry can be a valid treatment alternative to reduce aerosols production compared to conventional high … In the present study Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used having wavelength of 2780nm emitted in a free running pulse mode through fiberoptic delivery system. J Periodontol. In Er:YAG, pulse energies of up to ~31mJ, slope efficiency of 12.6% and a red-shift in laser wavelength are observed with a final and dominant wavelength of 2.936μm. Lin S, Liu Q, Peng Q, Lin M, Zhan Z, Zhang X. Investigation of Rimondini, et al.31 (1997) showed that the surface roughness of specimens is the key factor in early in vivo plaque accumulation. Figure 1 (a) fabricated splint. Effect of a Er, Cr:YSGG laser and a Er:YAG laser treatment on oral biofilm-contaminated titanium, Ok-Su Kim3  Treatment time in Er,Cr:YSGG laser was shorter than Er:YAG laser. doi: 10.4317/medoral.56424 (b) Intraoral view of a splint with discs. Implant Dent. laser and the Er,Cr:YSGG (2790 nm) laser [1]. The self-etch adhesive systems theoretically would be most appropriate for use in laser-prepared dentine, and should obtain the best adhesion results. Current implant dentistry focuses on the maintenance of long-term stability of peri-implant tissue. J Clin Periodontol. The best bond strength results (average about 41 MPa) was obtained by using laser in dentin, followed by phosphoric acid etching at 40% for … [25,26], In the self-etch adhesive systems, the acids are weak, achieving adhesion to dentin through the conditioning and simultaneous infiltration of adhesive monomers, in the surface of the dentin.[13]. J Periodontol. The mean early biofilm was at 49.8±18.7%. Effect of Er,Cr (YSGG Laser Root Conditioning on the Success of Root Coverage with Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft): A Randomized Clinical Trial with a 6-Month Follow-Up. [ Links ], 23- Giannelli M, Bani D, Tan A, Materassi F, Chellini F, Sassoli C. Effects of an Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser and ultrasonic scaler on titanium dioxide-coated titanium surfaces contaminated with subgingival plaque: an in vitro study to access post-treatment biocompatibility with osteogenic cells. Clin Oral Implants Res. J Periodontol. This difference occurred because of the water source, which comes directly from the laser apparatus in irradiation, compared with passive irrigation in hand scaling. All decontamination methods used in this study decreased the residual plaque area. The three-dimensional structure is formed by intratubular and peritubular dentin and tubules that extend from the pulp to the dentin–enamel junction. J Periodontol. The adhesive Excite® and Adper Single Bond™ are both two-step adhesives, while Scotchbond™ Multipurpose is divided into three steps: etching, primer, and bonding. The difference in the ARI scores and enamel and … [ Links ], 22- Birang E, Birang R, Narimani T, Tolouei A, Fekrazad R. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of laser irradiation and chemical agent on human oral biofilms contaminated titanium discs. Appl Environ Microbiol. Therefore, further research is necessary to clarify bacterial adhesion and method of decontamination on rough surface implant surfaces in clinically simulated situations. Kim, Ok-Su: Conceptualization (Equal); Data curation (Equal); Formal analysis (Equal); Funding acquisition (Equal); Investigation (Equal); Methodology (Equal); Project administration (Equal); Resources (Equal); Software (Equal); Supervision (Equal); Validation (Equal); Visualization (Equal); Writing-original draft (Equal); Writing-review & editing (Equal). Cr:YSGG lasers are necessary to perform by a power meter. [21,22] In fact, adhesion to dentin was always a bigger challenge than adhesion to enamel because of its water content and collagen. Lasers Med Sci. This might be the reason why it showed better results. Enhancement of bonding to enamel and dentin prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Since non-normal distributions were assumed to occur, we analyzed data by applying non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test for differences in treatment time, RPA, and the amount of dead and live bacteria adhered on surface in each treatment. One could explain that Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at higher power settings in this study, and it has an ablative hydrokinetic process that enables more efficient decontamination and debridement.25, The quantification of adherent microorganisms based on biofluorescence are simple, precise, and reproducible. 2014;25(7):838-42. doi: 10.1111/clr.12147 Treatment of the contaminated implant surface using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The effect of surface roughness on early in vivo plaque colonization on titanium. Martínez-Insua A, Da Silva Dominguez L, Rivera FG, Santana-Penín UA. The adhesive that showed the best shear bond strength results was the two steps self-etch adhesive, Clearfil™ SE after conditioning with 40% phosphoric acid, with the settings 2 W, 75% water, 60% air, 140 μs pulse duration, and 20 Hz (energy density 50.96 J/cm2). The settings of 1.5 W, 70% water, 65% air, 140 μs pulse duration and frequency 30 Hz, energy density of 4.5 J/cm2 resulted in a bond strength of 38.7 ± 16.5 MPa, while the settings of 3.5 W, 60% water and 65% air, and an energy density of 109.4 J/cm2 resulted in 9.0 ± 3.35 MPa. Bactericidal effect of the Er:YAG laser on dental implant surfaces: an in vitro study. (a) UC (untreated control), (b) PC (Decontamination with plastic curette), (c) ERL (Er:YAG laser irradiation), and (d) ERCL (Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation)Â, Table 1 Effectiveness of different decontamination procedure on biofilms had been formed in vivo for 72 hours indicated by live/dead fluorescence staining (mean±SD (%))Â. UC, untreated control; PC, decontamination with plastic curette; ERL, Er:YAG laser irradiation; ERCL, Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Influence of plaque biofilm removal on reestablishment of the biocompatibility of contaminated titanium surfaces. 1997;68(6):556-62. doi: 10.1902/jop.1997.68.6.556 The laser effect on collagen network is still not completely clear, but it is accepted that the laser irradiation may cause changes and microruptures in collagen fibers. Obeidi A, Liu PR, Ramp LC, Beck P, Gutknecht N. Acid-etch interval and shear bond strength of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared enamel and dentin. Tseng WY, Chen MH, Lu HH, Lin CW, Hsieh TT, Chen CH, et al. The 1064 nm wavelength of Nd:YAG is thought to be particularly dangerous, as it is invisible and initial exposure is painless. The ablation threshold of Er:YAG laser and Er,Cr:YSGG laser in dental dentin. In the Er:YAG laser (wavelength of 2,940 nm, Anybeam E, BnB system, Korea) group, laser parameters were set at 50 mJ/pulse (8.92 J/cm2), 30 Hz, 150 μsec, water 30%, air 70%. The second best result (average of approximately 39 MPa) was obtained with additional conditioning of 90% sodium hypochlorite gel for 90 s.[10]. 1998;69(8):857-64. doi: 10.1902/jop.1998.69.8.857 Braga RR, Meira JB, Boaro LC, Xavier TA. J Clin Exp Dent. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004;13(2):165-70. doi: 10.1097/01.ID.0000127521.06443.0b The depth of laser cutting will be measured and controlled continuously during the operation by the periodontal probe with stopper read to each 3mm depth in addition to a few parts of a millimetre depth into the medullary bone to enhance bleeding. These results show that homogenous plaque biofilms cover all titanium discs after 72 hours in situ. The proportion of live or active bacteria (fluorescent green) and dead or inactive bacteria (fluorescent red) was determined by the Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit (Molecular Probes, USA).  This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. J Dent. Participants wore the splints for 72 hours, except when they manually brushed their teeth. Differences in bonding to acid-etched or Er:YAG-laser-treated enamel and dentin surfaces. Figure 3 Mean treatment times (sec) of PC, ERL, and ERCLÂ. [ Links ], 5- Renvert S, Roos-Jansaker AM, Claffey N. Non-surgical treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: a literature review. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at a power setting of 1.0 W, fluence of 16.99 J/cm2, a 30 Hz repetition rate and with a water spray of 20% water and 11% air. Due to the heterogeneity of the laser parameters, the adhesive procedures and the adhesive materials used, it was not possible to carry out a meta-analysis, so it was performed an analysis of selected items from a descriptive point of view. 3Chonnam National University, School of Dentistry, Hard-tissue Biointerface Research Center, Department of Periodontology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. tested the use of an excavator after application of Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 3 W, 70% water and 60% air, and acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid, using the Single Bond™ Plus, having the best adhesion strength (±14 MPa) using the excavator and etching for 15 s.[18], In the paper by Botta et al., the adhesives Adper™ Single Bond, Clearfil ™ SE Bond, and One Up®F were tested in dentin prepared with the parameters 0.25 W, 50% air and with 20% water and without any water, resulting in better adhesion strength in the group which was used water during cavity preparation with Clearfil™ SE Bond (16.28 ± 2.93 MPa) [Table 4]. Nakabayashi N, Kojima K, Masuhara E. The promotion of adhesion by the infiltration of monomers into tooth substrates. Er,Cr:YSGG laser. [12], By testing three different adhesives, Excite® (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Scotchbond™ Multipurpose (3M ESPE, Minneapolis, USA), and Syntac® Classic (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), in dentin prepared with the same laser parameters, 2 W with 65% water, 55% air, with and without 37% phosphoric acid etching, Beer et al. Nakabayashi N. Adhesive bonding with 4-META. Moretto SG, Azambuja N, Jr, Arana-Chavez VE, Reis AF, Giannini M, Eduardo Cde P. Effects of ultramorphological changes on adhesion to lased dentin-scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two-year clinical outcomes following non-surgical mechanical therapy of peri-implantitis with adjunctive diode laser application. 2018;89(3):325-30. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0325 Incidence and prediction of peri-implant attachment loss. 761 - … Kim, Ok-Joon: Conceptualization (Lead); Data curation (Equal); Investigation (Equal); Methodology (Equal); Resources (Equal); Supervision (Equal). [ Links ], 8- Patianna G, Valente NA, D’Addona A, Andreana S. In vitro evaluation of controlled-release 14% doxycycline gel for decontamination of machined and sandblasted acid-etched implants. 2008;35(8 Suppl):305-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01276.x 2020;35(6):1411-7. doi: 10.1007/s10103-020-03009-y The effect of erbium family laser on tensile bond strength of composite to dentin in comparison with conventional method. This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chonnam National University Dental Hospital (CNUDH-2014-008) and all participants provided an informed consent form. In fact, plastic curette is suitable for cleansing the platform site and upper structures of the implant, but if the tip width is larger than the distance between screw pitches of the implant, it is difficult to remove the biofilm, and may be left fine plastic remnants when used on rough-surface implants. There was a risk of a potential bias in this review related to the language, since the selection was reduced to articles written in English only. Also, adverse thermal effects on the pulp and surrounding tissues can be prevented effectively with the use of a water mist spray [ 23 ]. Irradiation was performed in a zigzag pattern. The mean treatment times were statistically significant in each group (Figure 3). Clin Oral Implants Res. However, the results should be used to develop new products, taking into account the characteristics of the prepared tooth surfaces with a laser. [ Links ], 9- Stubinger S, Etter C, Miskiewicz M, Homann F, Saldamli B, Wieland M, Sader R. Surface alterations of polished and sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implants after Er:YAG, carbon dioxide, and diode laser irradiation. 2017;88(5):484-92. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160529 Tensile bond strength of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated human dentin to composite inlays with two resin cements. During cleansing treatment, the time taken to completely remove stained biofilms visible to the naked eye was also measured. The remaining 38 articles were analyzed, and those selected were the ones who did not have any exclusion criteria, as articles in language other than English, containing tests on carious or sclerotic dentin and studies in primary dentition [Table 2]. 2014;85(9):1194-202. doi: 10.1902/jop.2014.130620 The effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the micro-shear bond strength of composite to the enamel and dentin of human permanent teeth Lasers Med. All methods of treatment were capable of inactivating adhered microorganisms. Immediately after biofilm formation in vivo, the titanium discs were removed from the splint, water-washed, and dyed with disclosing solution (FD&C Red #28, Sultan Healthcare, USA). The worst bond strength results were recorded with the use of Scotchbond™ Multipurpose adhesive (average 3.5 MPa), Excite® (average 5.2 MPa) with the settings 2 W with 65% water, 55% air[13] and with Adper™ Single Bond (mean 4.85 ± 0.93 MPa) with 3.5 W, 65% water, 55% air, 140 μs pulse duration, and 20 Hz in dentin. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. The hydrophobic characteristics of the composite resins do not allow its penetration in peritubular walls due to their inability to move the dentinal fluid, which resulted in dentinal tags away from the walls of the tubules along with polymerization shrinkage. Microtensile bond strength analysis of adhesive systems to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin. 2005;16(1):36-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2004.01056.x The Er,Cr:YSGG laser (ERL) is a solid‐state laser that provides a user‐controlled distribution of infrared energy at 2,780 nm for a variety of intraoral applications. used the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the following parameters 3.5 W, 65% water, 55% air, 140 μs pulse duration, and 20 Hz in dentin, with Adper™ Single Bond (3M ESPE, Minneapolis, USA) after acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 s, getting a bond strength of 4.85 ± 0.93 MPa [Table 3]. Giannelli, et al.23 (2017) in their study used a bacterial plaque originated from the subgingival margin of diseased implants with sterile curettes and smeared on the surface of disks. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems. Obeidi A, McCracken MS, Liu PR, Litaker MS, Beck P, Rahemtulla F, et al. In this study, anti-adherence activity of three treatments on biofilm contaminated titanium surface was examined by estimating the total bacterial load. This study examined the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers compared to Er:YAG laser or plastic curette in the decontamination of titanium disc surfaces covered with oral biofilms. The mean treatment time from the experiments in decreasing order: Er:YAG laser, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and plastic curette group. threads) enable easier access to a plastic curette. Fluorescence microscopy showed the proportions of live bacteria decreased and dead bacteria increased after laser treatment (Figure 6; Table 1), when compared to the control group. The results of previous investigations examining the effectiveness of different types of lasers as plaque removal methods are similar to ours: Er:YAG laser: 5.8±5.1%, Er,Cr:YSGG laser: 9.8±6.2%.26,30 However, in our study, the mean residual plaque area after decontamination with plastic curette was lower than previous study outcomes.29,31 According to the results from previous experiments, mean RPA after decontamination with a plastic curette ranged between 58.5±4.9% and 61.1±11.4%.30,32 This discrepancy is due to complete removal of bacterial plaque using disclosing agent without any time restrictions in our study. Cr: YSGG laser irradiation need of anesthesia, the choice of several lasers has been to... Hoc test, P < 0.05 ) acrylic splint with discs need of anesthesia, the choice of lasers! Jm, Matos AB time ( 20 seconds ) was used for analyses. With display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC, Saraceni CH Matson! 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