Flesh—If this word means Christ’s body, then spirit must mean his human spirit, which, as we shall see, the word quickened will not allow; yet the assumption that as only the body died, σαρξ must perforce signify body, has led to the wildest vagaries in both interpretation and theology. But it is as God-Man Mediator, whereby he hath all power given him in heaven, and in earth. We’re on a mission to change that. If his soul had been exempt from whatever there is involved in death in relation to the spirit, it is unaccountable that there is no hint on this point in the sacred narrative. 2. ], [It was not for any sin of his own that Jesus was cut off [Note: Daniel 9:26. It is not who was responsible for Jesus" death and resurrection that is the issue but how Jesus suffered death and experienced resurrection. Because also Christ died once for sins, a righteous one for unrighteous ones, in order that he might bring us to God. "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". BibliographyBarnes, Albert. When, then, our Lord was put to death as a sacrifice for sins—a righteous man on behalf of unrighteous men—St. The life which fell under death was a fleshly life, that is, such a life as has its determination to the present condition of man’s nature, to the externality of its mundane connexion. Scripture 1 Peter 3 Sort Bible Verse. "Some are saying that our suffering proves that our cause is bad, and that God is displeased with us. Indeed, it is what our Lord said, (John 12:32,) that if he were lifted up he would draw all unto himself. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/1-peter-3.html. 1999-2014. in the flesh = in flesh. Compare John 5:21; Romans 8:11, etc., where "quicken" is used of the bodily resurrection. The word “to die” in Greek is often used in a penal sense—“to be put to death”—and is to be so taken here. Read 1 Peter 3 commentary using Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible (Complete). They point to two different forms of existence, a natural, mortal form of existence associated with flesh, and a supernatural, immortal form of existence associated with spirit,—in other words, a perishable, corporeal life, and an imperishable, spiritual or incorporeal life. Syr. It is Christ only that is here spoken of. However, the Greek dative case ("in the flesh") is probably what Peter intended here rather than the instrumental case ("by the flesh"). Peter emphasized the completeness of God's work in Christ. How singular would it be to say of Isaiah, Paul, or Peter, that they were put to death in the flesh! "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". As regards the one, He ceased to live it by being put to death. 163. tom. Christ did not barely suffer for our good, but he suffered in our stead: he is not only said to suffer for us, but to suffer for our sins, that is, the punishment of our sins; for no man was ever said to suffer for sin that did not undergo and endure the punishment of sin. Suffering for doing good is the point of comparison in both passages. “Jesus Christ is come in the flesh.” 2 John 1:7. 1 Peter 2:22, etc.) Two explanations of 1 Peter 3:18-19, are possible: (1) 'Quickened in Spirit,' i:e., immediately on His release from the "flesh," the energy of His undying spirit-life was "quickened" by the Father into new modes of action, namely, 'in the Spirit He went down. Compare the notes at Romans 1:3-4. Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. All are now made priests unto God [Note: Revelation 1:6. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/1-peter-3.html. His 'Spirit strove' with the antediluvian men, but did not continue to do so, because man was "flesh," and suffered it to quench the Spirit (Genesis 6:3): so now they are "spirits in prison." (See Curtius, 466, 5.) And how sweet sometimes the prospect of the grave is, where sleeping in Jesus, we shall lay down all the sorrows and distresses, arising from these workings of sin; yea, and all sin together! Note, 3. There is evidently a contrast here between “the flesh” in which it is said he was “put to death,” and “the Spirit” by which it is said he was “quickened.” The words “in the flesh” are clearly designed to denote something that was unique in his death; for it is a departure from the usual method of speaking of death. . No unjust person could suffer and die on behalf of another like him, hence it was necessary for the just Christ to do this. Our Lord was put to death, and thus made atonement, but his dying simply expiated sin. The absence of the article usually stresses the quality of the noun. i3f. 1 Peter 3:18. that he might bring us to God — together with Himself in His ascension to the right hand of God (1 Peter 3:22). Nothing short of this could answer the purposes of his love [Note: John 17:24. By the way, note that the word “flesh” doesn’t inherently mean something that is sinful. applied to the raising of the dead to life. Compare the Romans 5:6 note; 2 Corinthians 5:21 note; Hebrews 9:28 note. BibliographyRobertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Peter 3:18". ‘died for sins’-For the sins of others (John 1:29; Isaiah 53:6; Isaiah 53:8; Isaiah 53:11). This is not true, as you can see from the fact that Christ himself died for us!" Yet it seems that he did this personally or directly, and not by the influences of the Holy Spirit, for it is said that “he went and preached.” The reference, therefore, cannot be to the Holy Spirit, and the fair conclusion is that it refers to his divine nature. (197) For σάρξ; is that side of human nature in virtue of which man belongs to the earth, is therefore an earthly creature, and accordingly perishable like everything earthly; and πνεῦμα, on the other hand, is that side of his nature by which he belongs to a supernatural sphere of existence, is not a mere creature of earth, and is accordingly destined also to an imperishable existence.(198). Harvey Goodwin, Parish Sermons, vol. Cf. Renewal 1960. Rather, it is a remembrance. marg. Christ also hath once suffered - See the notes on Romans 5:6; Hebrews 9:28; (note). He incurred death by His "confession" (1 Timothy 6:13); as we are called on to 'give an answer to him that asketh a reason of our hope.' Some take the word to mean simply “preserved alive,” a word almost identical, being used apparently in that sense in Luke 17:33, Acts 7:19. 1870. Suffering for righteousness’ sake is nothing new. For Christ also hath once suffered; in opposition to the legal sacrifices which were offered from day to day, and from year to year, Hebrews 7:27 9:25; and Hebrews 10:12: and this shows, as the perfection of Christ’s sufferings, (in that they needed not be repeated), so our conformity to him in deliverance from ours; that as Christ underwent death (the principal part of his sufferings) not often, but once only, and then his glory followed; so likewise, if in this life we suffer for righteousness’ sake, according to Christ’s example, there remains no more suffering for us, but we shall be glorified with him, 2 Timothy 2:12. Put to death in the flesh - In his human nature. The Spirit—This refers (1) to our Lord’s human spirit, (2) to the Holy Spirit, or (3) to his divine nature. The weakness of this view is that it is redundant. entered and.— ὀλίγοι κ. τ. λ. St. Peter hints that here in the typical narrative is the basis of the disciple’s question, εἰ ὀλίγοι οἱ σωζόμενοι (Luke 13:23).— ὀκτὼ ψυχαί so Genesis 7:7; ψ. The resurrection is referred to again in 1 Peter 3:21, but in another connexion and for another purpose, namely, to show how baptism saves; and, besides, it is too remote for the present inquiry as to how the suffering of Christ brings us to God. Nor is the phrase here 'preached the Gospel' [euangelizoo], but heralded [ ekeeruxen (Greek #2784)]; simply made announcement of His finished work (so [ keerussein (Greek #2784)] Mark 1:45, "publish"); confirming Enoch and Noah's testimony; thereby declaring the condemnation of the diluvian unbelievers, and the salvation of Noah and believers (Birks thinks Christ announced His finished work to those who repented when the flood suddenly came, but who were shut out from the ark): a sample of the opposite effects of the word preached on all unbelievers and believers respectively; also a consolation to those whom Peter addresses, in their sufferings from unbelievers. (just as the fallen angels are judicially regarded as "in chains of darkness," though for a time at large on the earth, 2 Peter 2:4), where 1 Peter 3:18 has an allusion to the flood, "the windows from on high are open" (cf. and R.V. Suffered—On the cross, freely, voluntarily, doing the will of God, and for no fault of his own. Also - as well as yourselves (1 Peter 3:17). He would be well aware that Jesus had commended His spirit to God (Luke 23:46) and that when the body died the spirit did not die but returned to the God Who gave it (Ecclesiastes 12:7). Sins may be committed often, nay, are being committed continually, but Christ died once and for all; that one event stands by itself; it is unique in the world's history; it can never be repeated; it need never be repeated. True, the spirit itself will gain in some way by its re-incorporation (2 Corinthians 5:4); but as the spirit has been alive all along, but the flesh has been dead, the contrast would be very forced to express death and resurrection by “killed in flesh, but quickened in spirit,” instead of saying rather “killed in flesh, but soon quickened in the same.” Thus we are driven to (2). The only proper inquiry, then, in this place is, What is fairly implied in the phrase, the flesh? Isaiah 53:11; Matthew 27:19; Luke 23:47; Romans 5:6-10; 1 John 2:1; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7). By his example in his sufferings, and by his final triumph, the apostle would encourage those whom he addressed to bear with patience the sorrows to which their religion exposed them. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/1-peter-3.html. This influence is moral, not physical; an influence accompanying the truth, not the exertion of mere physical power. Matthew 26:41; Romans 1:3-4; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Corinthians 5:5). ], ""Flesh" and "spirit" do not refer to two "parts" of Christ, i.e, his body and his soul; nor does the "spirit" refer to the Holy Spirit or Christ"s human spirit. What a suffering was that, when the Just suffered for the unjust, with the unjust, upon unjust causes, under unjust judges, and by unjust punishments, &c. Euripides saith it is but righteous that they that do things not good should suffer things not pleasant; but what had that innocent "Lamb of God" done? The conclusion, then, to which we have come is, that the passage means, that as a man, a human being, he was put to death; in respect to a higher nature, or by a higher nature, here denominated Spirit ( Πνεῦμα Pneumahe was restored to life. Doubtless on its emancipation from the body by death it became more free and untrammelled; but neither this nor any supposed change in the mode or sphere of its existence fulfils the condition required in made alive. περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν, which states yet more indefinitely the purpose of Christ’s sufferings: “on account of sin,” finds a more precise definition in what follows. Bellarmin (de Christo, lib. Flesh here means the outward man; and Spirit means the divine power, by which Christ emerged from death a conqueror. 1874-1909. See the Inferences. The word is a common one to designate our Lord’s entire humanity, embracing both body and soul. ]); but we say, in concurrence with all the inspired writers, that when it was necessary for the honour of the Divine government that sin should be punished, either in the offender himself or in his surety, Christ became our surety, and by his own death made a true and proper atonement for our sins, and thus effected our reconciliation with God [Note: Ephesians 5:2 and 1 John 2:2.]. put to death indeed in flesh, but quickened in spirit. Some have concluded from this passage that there is an immortal soul, that people have a second chance of salvation after death, and/or that Jesus descended into hell and came up again. Nor is any mention made of the conversion of the spirits in prison. Either reading would give a good meaning but ἅπαξ suits ἀπέθανε best. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/1-peter-3.html. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/1-peter-3.html. But the Greek without the article is more graphic: just for unjust. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/1-peter-3.html. The verb occurs here only; the substantive προσαγωγή, Romans 5:2; Ephesians 2:18; Ephesians 3:12.(195). Another remedy for sin will not be found. I. δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων, “as the just for the unjust;” comp. “Of his loins according to the flesh.” Acts 2:30. The Expositor's Greek Testament. "Commentary on 1 Peter 3:18". 1897-1910. "For" connects 1 Peter 3:18-22 with13-17 , but "Christ also" recalls and resumes the example of Jesus Christ that Peter cited in 1 Peter 2:21-25. But see the answer below. Thus the Lord’s Supper is not a re-sacrifice of Jesus. 1700-1703. “Paradise” and “Abraham‘s bosom,” the abode of good spirits in Old Testament times, are separated by a wide gulf from Hell or Hades, and cannot be called “prison.” Compare 2 Corinthians 12:2, 2 Corinthians 12:4, where “paradise” and the “third heaven” correspond. How many of the Lord's exercised ones is Jesus daily, hourly, calling home, whose bodies called forth the groan but just before Jesus called home the spirit? Death, with him, was what death is in any other case - the separation of the soul and body, with all the attendant pain of such dissolution. 1952. This is the wonderment of angels, torment of devils, &c. The just for the unjust] Oh, the vile dulness of our hearts, that cannot be duly affected herewith! Compare Robinson‘s Lexicon on the word Πνεῦμα PneumaC. 1909-1922. cap. Cf. 1870. return to 'Jump List'. Their supernatural existence is seen as in contrast with the supernatural spiritual life that He has received. The salvation which he procured for us, is a “salvation with eternal glory [Note: 2 Timothy 2:10. His was also a vicarious sacrifice: the just One died for the unjust ones ( 1 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 2:21-24; 1 Peter 4:1; cf. BibliographyPett, Peter. Schott explains—somewhat ambiguously—the datives “as general more precise adverbial definitions,” which state “what is of determinative importance in both facts,” and “the nature of the actual condition produced by them.”. 1 Peter 3:18 Christ’s Suffering and Ours 18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring 6 us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit, https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-peter-3.html. Question: "Does 1 Peter 3:21 teach that baptism is necessary for salvation?" 1 Peter 3:14.— ἵνα ἡμᾶς προσαγάῃ, that He might bring us) that He Himself, when He departed to the Father, might justify us, who had been alienated from God, and might bring us to heaven (1 Peter 3:22) together with Himself, by the same steps of humiliation and exaltation which He Himself passed through. Used by Permission. Thirdly. 1 Peter 3:18. "As the Logos in human form, he died physically, just as all men do!" If it is right to speak, as Besser does, of the little word ‘once’ as letting ‘a beam of comforting light fall on the sufferings of Christians,’ this clause reminds them of the necessity of making sure that their sufferings be not of the kind which their own fault induces, but rather of the kind righteously borne with a view to the good of others. The verb is used of the Jews condemning our Lord to death, Matthew 26:59; Matthew 27:3; Mark 14:55. ζωοποιηθεὶς is contrasted with θανατοῦν in 2 Kings 5:7, “Am I God to kill and to make alive?” In the N.T. Note here, 1. 31. Jesus didn’t go into some state of mental meditation which enabled detachment from His body (John 19:28). For sins - as though He had Himself committed them. There are numerous coincidences of thought between this section of St Peter and Romans 6, and the idea here seems to be that Christ’s death was the termination of the regime of sin, cf. . No reason appears, therefore, for a specific statement that he died in his body, leaving as true in his special case the universal fact that the spirit did not die. There will be people who refuse God’s offer of salvation. of the New Testament, i. p. 232, Clark’s Trans.). ]: he was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities, and the chastisement he endured was to effect our peace [Note: Isaiah 53:4.]. 1 Peter 3:19-20. Christ liveth unto God, Romans 6:10. By the Spirit; his own divine Spirit. His body was buried, and three days later was reunited with His Spirit and resurrected (see " What happens to the spirit or soul when people die?") Wives, likewise, be submissive to your own husbands, that even if some do not obey the word, they, without a word, may be won by the conduct of their wives, when they observe your chaste conduct accompanied by fear. "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". As God-man he was dead; and, though his human soul still lived in union with his divine nature, while held in the bonds of death he was powerless to apply the benefits of his dying. "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". and R.V. Its use here shows that Christ made atonement for sins, by suffering in the stead of those for whom he offered himself a sacrifice. But at the very instant of our Lord’s death, while the Jews were worshipping in the temple, the vail was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, and the most holy place was opened to the view of all [Note: Matthew 27:50-51.]. "Commentary on 1 Peter 3:18". reconcile us to God, and procure for us access to him with freedom and boldness, Romans 5:2 Ephesians 3:12. by the Spirit = in spirit. "Commentary on 1 Peter 3:18". 1 Peter 1:11. Once—Once for all; perhaps also intimating that their suffering might be in like manner, once, or at least that soon they would look back upon it in that light. What was there special in their case, which would distinguish their death from the death of others? This is not contradicted by Luke 24:39. The New Testament, as has been well pointed out, never even speaks of the reconciliation as mutual. Martin Luther (AD 483 – 1546)made a profound statement about his text in his commentary on 1 Peter: These are among the most difficult verses in the New Testament to interpret. 1 Peter 3:18 ‘For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, in order that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;’. The words connect themselves with the death-cry on the cross: “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.” Huther observes, “Flesh is that side of the man's being by which he belongs to earth, is therefore a creature of earth, and accordingly perishable like everything earthy. we prefer to understand Christ’s divine nature, partly because it fills out the contrast, and partly because whatever is done by the Holy Spirit is in reality his work. ]: he was “a Lamb without spot or blemish [Note: 1 Peter 1:19. If, for instance, they be inflicted for righteousness’ sake, and we have the testimony of our conscience that we suffer for well-doing, we may then unfeignedly rejoice in them, as on other accounts, so especially because they render us conformable to our Lord and Saviour. [just as the fallen angels are judicially regarded as “in chains of darkness,” though for a time now at large on the earth, 1 Peter 2:4 ], where 1 Peter 3:18 has a plain allusion to the flood, “the windows from on high are open,” compare Genesis 7:11); from this prison the only way of escape was that preached by Christ in Noah. It has been tried before, and the precedent is encouraging. BibliographyCoffman, James Burton. ‘bring us to God’-‘Bring’-‘to open a way of access’ (Thayer p. 543) (Romans 5:1-2; Ephesians 2:16-18; Hebrews 10:19-20). 1896. That he might bring us to God— Does this mean that he might bring us, after the final judgment, together with himself into heaven? ii. Compare also Romans 1:4. But does the Christian suffer also for sins? Behold, here was piety scourged for the impious man’s sake, wisdom derided for the fool’s sake, truth denied for the liar’s sake, justice condemned for the unjust man’s sake, mercy afflicted for the cruel man’s sake; life dies for the dead man’s sake. For those familiar with the baptismal liturgies of the Lutheran tradition, this will be a familiar and perhaps obvious move. In the Septuagint, περι αμαρτιων is used more than sixty times to represent sin-offerings. Spirit, on the other hand, is that side of his being according to which he belongs to a supernal sphere of being, and is therefore not merely a creature of earth, and is destined to an immortal existence.”. 1 Peter 3:18. It does not need repeating (as in the Roman Catholic mass) or adding to (by any human works, cf. and R.V. But it fits with Peter"s usual conception of the Christian life as an active close following of Jesus (. do not overlook this. Galatians 1:4; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10. Christ, the innocent and guiltless, died as a condemned criminal in the stead of the wicked and guilty. passim.]. Peter lays stress on the water (rather than the ark as e.g., Hebrews 11) for the sake of the parallel with Baptism (Romans 6:3; cf. The word “spirit,” so far as the mere use of the word is concerned, might refer to his own soul, to his divine nature, or to the Holy Spirit. The objections are “quickened” must refer to Christ‘s body (compare 1 Peter 3:21, end), for as His Spirit never ceased to live, it cannot be said to be “quickened.” Compare John 5:21; Romans 8:11, and other passages, where “quicken” is used of the bodily resurrection. in the flesh — that is, in respect to the life of flesh and blood. What was inside that body didn’t die, i.e. (2) The strongest argument for (1) is the position of "sometime," "of old," connected with "disobedient;" whereas if the preaching were long past, we should expect "sometime" to be joined to "went and preached." And it is this, which makes Jesus so peculiarly endeared, and blessed to his people. "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". Wiesinger (with whom Zezschwitz agrees) deviates from this interpretation thus far only, that he understands πνεῦ΄α, not as belonging to the nature of man, “but as that principle of union with God which is bestowed upon man at regeneration.” This deviation may arise from the reluctance to attribute a πνεῦμα to man as such (also in his sinful condition); as, however, according to Peter, the souls of the departed are πνεύ΄ατα (1 Peter 3:19), it is thus presupposed that an unregenerate man also possesses a πνεῦ΄α during his earthly existence. or does it refer to him as a man, as distinguished from some higher nature, over which death had no power Now, that the latter is the meaning seems to me to be apparent, for these reasons: (1) It is the usual way of denoting the human nature of the Lord Jesus, or of saying that he became in carnate, or was a man, to speak of his being in the flesh. Dative case. The purposes of the atonement required that he should meet death in the usual form; that the great laws which operate everywhere else in regard to dissolution, should exist in his case; nor is there in the Scriptures any intimation that there was, in this respect, anything special in his case. But how can His death be said to have been a quickening of His human spirit? https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/1-peter-3.html. Romans 5:7-8. Wordsworth says, “His human spirit, being liberated by death from the burden of the flesh, acquired new life by death; it gained new powers of motion,” etc. On any other supposition than this, the whole Mosaic ritual was absurd, and the writings of the New Testament are altogether calculated to deceive us.]. Go to. If any man desires to live comfortably on earth, or to possess eternal life in heaven, he must bridle his tongue from wicked, abusive, or deceitful words.