Centralised authority: It functions on the basis of centralised control and authority which is vested … However, the group’s influence has waned in recent years and its power has been called into question as well. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Such organizations engage in offenses such as cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and the demanding of “protection” payments. African criminal enterprises have been identified in several major metropolitan areas in the U.S., but are most prevalent in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Milwaukee, Newark, New York, and Washington, D.C. Nigerian criminal enterprises are the most significant of these groups and operate in more than 80 countries of the world, including the United States. The above is not to suggest that only the US is prone to organized crime; in fact, some of the biggest organized crime groups are located in other countries, such as the Solntsevskaya Bratva, considered to be perhaps the biggest crime group in the world, whose headquarters are anchored in Russia. Consent decrees are most effective when there is long-term, systemic corruption at virtually every level of a labor union by criminal organizations. The LCN is most active in the New York metropolitan area, parts of New Jersey, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, and New England. In fact, organized crime history can be traced several hundred years back, when pirates and bandits organized to attack villages, pillaging loot while killing those who tried to defend their property. These include groups such as the Italian, Russian, Irish, Polish, and Jewish Mafia. To combat the ongoing threat posed by these groups, the FBI has a long-established—yet constantly evolving—transnational organized crime program dedicated to eliminating the criminal enterprises that pose the greatest threat to America. The FBI uses many of the same investigative techniques against organized retail theft groups that it uses against any criminal enterprise and partners with law enforcement at the federal, state, and local levels in order to share intelligence and work together operationally. All crimes and criminals are located along a continuum of organizational sophistication that identifies differences with respect to factors such as the division of labor or stability over time. All text and design is copyright ©2020 Koala Guide LLC. Based in Sicily, this group specializes in heroin trafficking, political corruption, and military arms trafficking—and also is known to engage in arson, frauds, counterfeiting, and other racketeering crimes. The Camorra made a fortune in reconstruction after an earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980. These cities also have a large presence of organized crime figures. Members of the most dominant Asian criminal enterprises affecting the U.S. have ties—either directly or culturally—to China, Korea, Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Founded back in… It is a well known fact that every group needs a leader to operate efficiently, hence every gang has a leader as well. Jewelry and gem thefts are often committed by organized criminal enterprises consisting of sophisticated thieves and organized fences for the stolen property. Organized crime is commonly associated with gambling houses. They are among the most aggressive and expansionist international criminal groups and are primarily engaged in drug trafficking and financial frauds. Transnational organized crime (TOC) groups are self-perpetuating associations of individuals who operate, wholly or in part, by illegal means and irrespective of geography. Sureños pay homage and respects to the Mexican Mafia, and carry out most of the dirty work of the Mafia, such as human trafficking, hence allowing them to claim the top slot. Most of the articles on the web focus on a global level with respect to criminal organizations rather than the US alone. The FBI focuses on the most significant retail theft cases involving the interstate transportation of stolen property as organized retail theft is a gateway crime, which major crime rings use the illicit proceeds to fund other crimes, such as organized crime activities, health care fraud, money laundering, and potentially terrorism. FBI.gov is an official site of the U.S. government, U.S. Department of Justice, Interstate Transportation of Stolen Property. Phishing, Internet auction fraud, and advanced fee fraud schemes allow criminals to target the United States without being present in the country. They constantly seek to obtain power, influence, and monetary gains. The FBI is dedicated to eliminating transnational organized crime groups that pose the greatest threat to the national and economic security of the United States. Also, the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, can be considered points of concern for similar reasons. Organized crime definition is - a group of professional criminals who work together as part of a powerful and secret organization. This crime has become one of the LCN’s fundamental sources of profit, national power, and influence. These enterprises rely on extensive networks of international criminal associates and can be highly sophisticated in their criminal operations. This list may not reflect recent changes . The political, social, and economic conditions in African countries like Nigeria, Ghana, and Liberia have helped some enterprises expand globally. Since their appearance in the 1800s, Italian organized crime groups, broadly known as the Italian Mafia, have infiltrated the social and economic fabric of Italy and have become transnational in nature. This broad definition takes account of the global complexity of the issue and allows cooperation on the widest possible range of common concerns. ’Ndrangheta has many cells, which are loosely connected family groups based on blood relationships and marriages. The implied definition 'transnational organized crime' then encompasses virtually all profit-motivated serious criminal activities with international implications. Besides using the standard Enterprise Theory of Investigation (ETI) and RICO investigative tools, the FBI participates in different working groups and initiatives to combat African organized crime on an international level. Within the Balkans, organized crime groups infiltrated the new democratic institutions, further expanding their profit opportunities. Prosecutors in El Salvador filed criminal charges against 1,152 members of organized crime groups in the country, primarily MS-13 and 18th Street Gangs. The goal of the FBI is to bring down entire organizations, not just arrest select individuals. So what exactly is the definition of organized crime? In addition to the adverse economic impact, vehicle theft and its associated national and international criminal enterprises have been identified as having a strong nexus to threat financing where the vehicles are used as a medium or currency for worldwide financial transactions relating to drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism, and RICO violations. However, this is just a basic definition. However, as evident from this report, the group still holds some sway, especially in cross border crimes. Established in Colombia, Paisa consisted of paramilitary members who established themselves as drug traffickers. It is an international problem requiring cooperation at all levels of law enforcement. Download a free copy of our newsletter and see the details inside! The word “’Ndrangheta” comes from Greek, meaning courage or loyalty. The Camorra first appeared in the mid-1800s in Naples, Italy, as a prison gang—the word “Camorra” means gang. Chinese, Latino and other ethnic groups have broken into organized crime in U.S. cities through the distribution and sale of illicit drugs. Now it specializes in cigarette smuggling and receives payoffs from other criminal groups for any cigarette traffic through Italy. Groups that commit major thefts also engage in other criminal acts, including violent crimes, fraud, money laundering, wire and mail fraud, intellectual property crime, and public corruption. Often working side by side with state and local law enforcement on task forces and in partnership with many industry groups, the FBI uses sophisticated techniques, including undercover operations and court-authorized surveillance, to identify and dismantle the criminal networks that commit these major thefts. The fraudsters will use the method most commonly associated with their victim’s normal business practice. To aid in this endeavor, the FBI established the National Stolen Art File (NSAF)–a computerized index of stolen art and cultural property as reported to the FBI by law enforcement agencies throughout the U.S. and internationally–and the Art Crime Team, responsible for addressing art and cultural crime cases. This gave the syndicate a one-time infusion of wealth and supplied the infrastructure for continuing cash flows and opportunities to launder criminal proceeds. Cargo theft is identified as a high priority due to its adverse economic impact, negative impact on the retail supply chain, disruptive nature on the flow of commerce, and the potential for significant health and safety implications. One such prevalent crime is Business E-mail Compromise (BEC), a sophisticated scam targeting businesses working with foreign suppliers or regularly performing wire transfer payments. criminal purpose. group looking to control a business. The FBI works closely with the Department of Labor Office of the Inspector General and with the U.S. Attorneys’ offices in investigating violations of labor law. cartel. Organized crime is defined in the Criminal Code as a group of three or more people whose purpose is the commission of one or more serious offences that would “likely result in the direct or indirect receipt of a material benefit, including a financial benefit, by the group.” The Bureau uses the RICO Act to expand criminal accountability for a number of “predicate offenses,” and to expand a single offense across multiple members of a criminal enterprise. Criminal markets once closed to Balkan groups suddenly opened, and this led to the creation of an international network. Notably, the primary goal of organized crime groups is to make money; these groups are profit-driven rather than ideology-driven (a key distinction between organized crime and terrorist groups).6 Statutory Definition There is no current statutory definition of organized crime. These groups based in the former Soviet Union have also defrauded newly formed governments of billions of dollars, as industries and resources formerly owned by the government have been privatized. They profit through tax-evasion schemes and using corrupt officials to embezzle government funds. Organized crime groups continued to flourish over the next few decades, but the most notable example came from the Italian-Americans who formed the Mafia, or The American Cosa Nostra. One of the largest organized crime groups in America, Crips, boasted a membership of more than 30,000 criminals, back in 1999. 0–9. This framework allows cells to operate independently, limiting their contact with members of the entire organization, thus protecting high level organized crime figures. Industry experts estimate that organized retail crimes cost the U.S. approximately $30 billion each year. The Camorra is also involved in money laundering, extortion, alien smuggling, robbery, blackmail, kidnapping, political corruption, and counterfeiting. These groups, however, are able to target victims and execute their schemes from anywhere in the world; thus, the extent of their presence within a particular area does not necessarily reflect the degree of the threat they pose. There are approximately 75,000 union locals in the U.S., and many of them maintain their own benefit funds. These criminals helped the major criminal groups expand to the West when the Soviet Union collapsed and the people of the region were able to move about freely. They are also known to collaborate with other international organized crime groups from all over the world to carry out their criminal activities. Well, organized crime refers to a crime that is committed out on a coordinated basis by groups of criminals, and is carried out on a large scale as well. All rights reserved. With the increase of technology available around the world, TOC groups are more commonly incorporating cyber techniques into their illicit activities, either committing cyber crimes themselves or using cyber tools to facilitate other unlawful acts. The civil provisions of the RICO statute, especially the consent decrees, have proven to be very powerful weapons against labor racketeering. The RICO statute, or Title 18 of the United States Code, Section 1961(4), defines an enterprise as "any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity.". Within Italy, there are four active groups: Cosa Nostra (Sicilian Mafia), Camorra, ’Ndrangheta, and Sacra Corona Unita. Industry experts estimate that vehicle thefts account for $4.95 billion in losses annually. How to Best Use Insider Monkey to Increase Your Returns, 6 Things You Didn't Know About Hedge Funds. What this means is that it’s more likely for crimes to be committed by criminal organizations than terrorist groups. The transit zone is comprised of Mexico and Central American countries, primarily Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. The potential political and national security implications of this destabilization cannot be ignored. Organized crime in the Balkans has its roots in the traditional clan structures. investigation, prosecution, or punishment. First, it is more common to see criminal groups cooperate across ethnic and racial heritage lines. Although tremendous strides have been made to combat cultural property crime, intelligence reveals this is a growing global threat, demanding proactive FBI measures and resources. Their largest presence centers around New York, southern New Jersey, and Philadelphia. Generous immigration policies have provided many members the ability to enter and live undetected on every populated continent in the world today. Sicilians weren’t concerned if the group profited from its actions because it came at the expense of the oppressive authorities. High-ranking victims include police commissioners, mayors, judges, police colonels and generals, and Parliament members. Like other groups, it started as a prison gang. An underground secret society formed initially as resistance fighters against the invaders and to exact frontier vigilante justice against oppression. These threats also include criminal penetration of global energy and strategic material markets that are vital to national security interests, and logistical and other support to terrorists and foreign intelligence services. two heads are better than one. With few exceptions, TOC groups’ primary goal is economic gain and they will employ an array of lawful and illicit schemes to generate profit. The members participating in the IOC-2 include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE); the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA); U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS); the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF); U.S. Secret Service (USSS); U.S. The Camorra first appeared in the mid-1800s in Naples, Italy, as a prison gangthe word Camorra means gan… The Camorra, ItalyThe Camorra is a crime syndicate that originated in the Campania region of Italy … Second, some gangs and criminal enterprises have begun to structure their groups in a hierarchical fashion to be more competitive, and the criminal activities they engage in have become globalized. Rather, these groups frequently have the same goals as any traditional organized crime ring—to make money through illegal activities. Among these 16, the most important are the Abergils, the Alperons, the Dumranis, the Abutbuls, and the Shirazis. consortium. They also appear to be more agile, organic, and project-based. Technology also enables TOC groups to engage in traditional criminal activity, such as illegal gambling, but with a greater reach through use of the Internet and off-shore servers, thus expanding their global impact. The FBI estimates the group has more than 3,000 members and associates scattered mostly throughout major cities in the Northeast, Midwest, California, and the South. Art theft is the illicit trade in art and cultural artifacts includes theft of individual works of art, illegal export of objects protected by international laws, and pillaging of archaeological sites. The U.S. provides the largest drug consumption market in the western hemisphere while Canada serves two roles—as both a destination and transit country for illicit activities including drug smuggling and global alien smuggling. They are often more productive because they attack the entire corrupt entity instead of imprisoning individuals, who can easily be replaced with other organized crime members or associates. To this end, we researched the various crime groups operating freely in America, and ranked them according to their involvement in cross border crimes, which are generally considered to be of a serious nature, as mentioned in the National Gang Report 2015 created by the FBI. According to the U.S. Law Enforcement Strategy to Combat International Organized Crime (IOC Strategy) released in April 2008 by DOJ, international organized crime has considerably expanded in presence, sophistication, and significance in recent years and it now threatens many aspects of how Americans live, work, and do business. These enterprises evolved over the course of 3,000 years during numerous periods of invasion and exploitation by numerous conquering armies in Italy. They also smuggle aliens; traffic heroin and methamphetamine; commit financial frauds; steal autos and computer chips; counterfeit computer and clothing products; and engage in money laundering. Those self-perpetuating associations of individuals who operate transnationally for the purpose of obtaining power, influence, and monetary and/or commercial gains, wholly or in part by illegal means, while protecting their activities through a pattern of corruption and/or violence, or while protecting their illegal activities through a transnational organizational structure and the exploitation of transnational commerce or communication mechanisms. The Continuing Criminal Enterprise statute, or Title 21 of the United States Code, Section 848(c)(2), defines a criminal enterprise as any group of six or more people, where one of the six occupies a position of organizer, a supervisory position, or any other position of management with respect to the other five, and which generates substantial income or resources, and is engaged in a continuing series of violations of subchapters I and II of Chapter 13 of Title 21 of the United States Code. The FBI defines significant racketeering activities as those predicate criminal acts that are chargeable under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations statute. The ’Ndrangheta formed in the 1860s when a group of Sicilians was banished from the island by the Italian government. The FBI remains focused on efforts to counter transnational criminal threats originating from the western hemisphere—in particular, in three critical areas of criminal activity known as the source zone (where the activity originates), the transit zone (the areas through which the activity passes), and the retail zone (the activity’s ultimate destination). There are so many people involved on different levels, arresting one person or even a dozen barely makes a dent in this billion dollar industry. consortium,cartel,syndicate,gang. In addition to the LCN, the FBI has seen an increase in labor racketeering activities by other TOC groups. The most profitable activity of the Nigerian groups is drug trafficking—delivering heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia into Europe and the U.S., and cocaine from South America into Europe and South Africa. Despite the creation of a national cargo theft definition and subsequent addition of a cargo theft category in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, UCR reporting of cargo theft remains at a fraction of estimated cargo theft activity nationally. It also is called the Mafia, a term used to describe other organized crime groups. Finally, more of these criminal enterprises are engaging in white-collar crimes and are co-mingling their illegal activities with legitimate business ventures. Translated into English it means “this thing of ours.” It is a nationwide alliance of criminals—linked by blood ties or through conspiracy—dedicated to pursuing crime and protecting its members. The first of these groups evolved from Chinese tongs—social organizations formed by early Chinese-American immigrants. From 2011 through 2015, reported vehicle thefts averaged just under 707,000 per year. Labor law violations occur primarily in large cities with both a strong industrial base and strong labor unions, like New York, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Philadelphia. Besides the standard ETI, Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF), and RICO investigative tools, the FBI participates in different working groups and initiatives to combat Asian organized crime on an international level. The Norteños gang was formed in Northern California, and was specifically created to counter the growing influence of Surenos, a gang which had ties to the Mexican Mafia. The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB) estimates a national recovery rate of approximately 50-60 percent, making the average annual realized loss over $2 billion. Due to escalating Mexican law enforcement attention against transnational criminal organizations in that country, Central American drug flow has increased dramatically in the last decade. Additionally, numerous criminal and civil statutes are at our disposal, primarily through the RICO statute. The FBI defines a criminal enterprise as a group of individuals with an identified hierarchy, or comparable structure, engaged in significant criminal activity. The FBI also participates in selecting TOC groups to appear on the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Top International Criminal Organizations Target (TICOT) List, and contributes to the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC) efforts to pursue criminal enterprises. The FBI focuses its resources on the most egregious major theft activity which crosses state and sometimes international lines, particularly thefts of art, cargo, jewelry and gems, retail, and vehicles. Easier international travel, expanded world trade, and financial transactions that cross national borders have enabled them to branch out of local and regional crime to target international victims and develop criminal networks within more prosperous countries and regions. The Bureau has found that even if key individuals in an organization are removed, the depth and financial strength of the organization often allow it to continue, so the FBI targets entire organizations responsible for a variety of criminal activities. The oldest Hispanic crime group in the world, the Latin Kings are involved in various illegal activities including drug trafficking and weapons trafficking, which explains its appearance among the biggest organized crime groups in America. Labor unions provide a rich source for organized criminal groups to exploit: their pension, welfare, and health funds. Eurasian TOC groups often engage in a myriad of criminal activity including healthcare fraud, securities and investment fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, extortion, auto theft, interstate transportation of stolen property, robbery, attempted murder, and murder. They are more prevalent in Honolulu, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. Organized Crime Organized crime is a group of individuals, either local, national or international, that engage in criminal enterprises for profit. These are found in Title 18 of the United States Code, Section 1961 (1) and include the following federal crimes: African TOC groups have developed quickly since the 1980s due to the globalization of the world's economies and the great advances in communications technology. Today it cooperates in various criminal activities with different criminal groups that are headquartered in Italy. Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. Despite its name, this organization that ranked third on our list of biggest organized crime groups in America, was established in the US and despite only a few hundred members, has managed to successfully carry out criminal activities on a large scale. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, members allied themselves with corrupt public officials to acquire the control of industries and resources that were being privatized. Eurasian TOC groups are politically and financially motivated organized crime groups influenced by, associated with, or originating from the former Soviet Union or Central Europe. The Italian mafia is perhaps the most famous organized crime group. Topping the list of the biggest organized crime groups in America is Sureños, a rival of the earlier mentioned Norteños. Besides the standard ETI, OCDETF, and RICO investigative tools, the FBI participates in different working groups and initiatives to combat Middle Eastern TOC groups on an international level. With a majority of stolen vehicles occurring in cities and states in close proximity to export areas such as international borders and seaports; it is believed that many unrecovered stolen vehicles are exported to Mexico and countries in Central America, Eastern Europe, West Africa, and Asia. Balkan TOC groups are politically and financially motivated groups influenced by, associated with, or originating from Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania. On the other hand, organized crime is more frequent than terrorism. 12 Biggest Organized Crime Groups in America, who is the biggest gangster in the world today. Each clan established itself in specific territories and controlled all activities in that territory. Criminal groups with associations to the Middle East have been active in the U.S. since at least the 1970s, particularly in areas with significant Middle Eastern or Southwest Asian populations. Organized crime in the early 2000s refers to any group of persons in a continuing operation of criminal activity, including street Gangs. Another gang established in Texas, the Barrio Azteca has engaged in drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering and contract killing, to name a few of their crimes. However, the bigger crime groups who wield enormous influence and power go beyond such crimes and enter (or in some cases create) criminal industries such as human trafficking, kidnapping for ransom and drug trafficking, all of which are enormously profitable. We further tried to rank them according to their revenue, but since their operations aren’t legal, the figures we obtained could not be accurately verified and ascertained, hence we decided this criterion would weaken our rankings instead of strengthening it. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the FBI has taken a new look at the various criminal threats originating in the Middle East and from Middle Eastern communities in the United States. Further, to pool resources and leverage technical and investigative expertise, the Bureau participates in many Organized Crime Task Forces consisting of state and local law enforcement partners in the U.S. To combat the violence and other illegal activity of street gangs, federal and state legislatures have passed laws pertaining specifically to street gangs. gang. While that estimate includes other crimes like credit card fraud, gift card fraud, and price tag switching, other forms of theft may threaten consumer health and safety as stolen food products, pharmaceuticals, and other items are not maintained under proper conditions or labeled so may be less effective or hazardous when used by unsuspecting consumers. In Sicily, the word Mafia tends to mean “manly.” A member was known as a “man of honor,” respected and admired because he protected his family and friends and kept silent even unto death. The Sicilian Mafia is infamous for its aggressive assaults on Italian law enforcement officials. An official website of the United States government. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS); U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS); U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Inspector General (DOL-OIG); and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Criminal Division.