Our Changing Earth. Vertical Stratification 4. This ‘sere’ of successional development of plant community is characterized by more soil-living organisms, sporadic plants and wide open areas devoid of any plant. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. On the basis of importance and dominant role of plants in the biosphere the study of plants is given more significance. Thus, new vegetation develops under new changed environmental conditions in place of plagioclimax vegetation and the successional develop­ment of vegetation community takes place under nor­mal sere. However, it is saline and not useful for human consumption. 1. This final plant community is referred to as the . The gradual develop­ment of grasses covers the whole area of the concerned habitat and thus is developed a dense vegetation cover which changes and modifies the micro-climates of the concerned habitat. Diffusion and osmosis; 3. A secondary layer very often called as co- dominant layer is formed just below the crown or dominant layer by those large trees which are rela­tively shorter than the largest trees (fig. A group of species in a succession do not continue to replace each other indefinitely, ultimately a state of relative stability will be reached where species exist in equilibrium with their environment. Account Disable 11. When the vegetation community of any region is disturbed before reaching its climax sere by human interferences (through slow but long-term activities like deforestation or burning of vegetation etc. ZIMSEC Advanced Level Geography Notes. Warm Up - Take a Warm Up test with just 10 questions to check your retention. The soil zone attains its maximum depth and different horizons of the soil profiles are well devel­oped. The plant community of a given habitat has three basic characteristics e.g. Class VII - Geography Chapter 1 - Environment Other Chapters Environment. Phytogeography (from Greek φυτόν, phytón = "plant" and γεωγραφία, geographía = "geography" meaning also distribution) or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. Disclaimer 8. or by human interferences (like intentional burning of vegetation, massive land use changes, mass felling of tress and overgrazing etc.). Download CBSE Class 9 Social Science Geography Natural Vegetation And Wildlife Notes in pdf, Geography chapter notes, class notes mind maps formulas Revision Notes CBSE Class 9 Geography Concepts Natural Vegetation and Wildlife. As 95% of the users buy both, it is not logical for me to add the same content in both the notes as it would increase the number of pages and the printing cost. Account Disable 11. ); (iv) Physical fac­tors (reliefs and topography, slope angle, gradient and slope aspect, etc. Freshwater accounts for only 2.7% and 70% of these occurs as ice-sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain region and they are inaccessible because of their location. Terms of Service 7. This results in the development of various strata or layers between the soil surface or ground surface and the tree canopy. The study of plants has been developed as an important branch of geography which is called as plant geography which includes the study of classification of plants, their spa­tial distribution, origin and development, dispersal and extinction and functions. The sub-tropical forests of New Zealand are of evergreen type which is characterized by dense cover of tall trees having different vertical strata of other plants. Basic Structure of Plants The three basic parts of most vascular plants are the leaf, the stem, and the roots. This uppermost stratum is also called crown or canopy which repre­sents the highest limit of plant community in a given region. Diffusion and Osmosis Revision Notes: 2. Principles of organization. On an average, there are four vertical strata of plant community in a given region mainly in the deciduous forests of the temperate regions: (i) Dominant layer represents the topmost layer of the plant community (fig. The concepts should be clear which will help Enzymes; 4. This floral kingdom is further divided into 3 sub-kingdoms e.g. The study of the distribution of plants is the science of plant geography. The original vegetation of New Zealand has been greatly modified and destroyed by human activi­ties and the mammals (mainly grazing red deers and rabbits) brought by them from Europe. Different species of plants are evolved in a habitat having favourable environmental conditions wherein different species of plant community grow together having different life-forms. Copyright 9. About 100 million years ago temperate grasses devel­oped as the native vegetation of this region (New Zealand). Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This kingdom includes most of Africa, South West Asia, South Asia, South East Asia and southern and middle portions of China. Copyright 9. It may be pointed out that such disturbed ecosystems or habitats still contain mature soils and some original vegetation and therefore the initial stage or sere of secondary succession of plant community is quite different from the initial stage or ‘sere’ of primary succession which starts on a bare rocky surface, having no earlier plants and animals. These bulbs and tubers give birth to other plants as new shoots come out from these bulbs and tubers and are developed as plants. Horizon ‘B’ - Lies below top soil. This is also called as shrub layer. But if all the species of the concerned habitat are equally powerful, there is maintained a balance of power among different species inspite of competition and the result is that all species are preserved and maintained. ); (vi) Fire factor (forest fire-natural forest fire through lightning, man-induced forest fire-both inten­tional and accidental; Distribution of plants may be attempted in a variety of ways viz. At this stage a very significant development takes place in that the seeds of flowering plants (phanerogams) are brought from the neighbouring areas to the concerned habitat by winds and given birth to trees in the otherwise shrub-dominated habitat. (GS Paper- 1 Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) Earth is splendid terrestrial haven. The total time required for the development of climax vegetation or climax succession in the secondary succes­sion is much less than the time taken for the develop­ment of primary succession. 43.2) e.g., West African rainforest region, Mada­gascar region, Iran-Turanian region, East Asian re­gion, etc. There is a wide range of variations in the distri­bution of vegetation on the globe. Report a Violation 10. Canopy. The land plant species of the world are grouped into 6 major floristic kingdoms on the basis of their worldwide distribution (fig. The study of plants has been developed as an important branch of geography which is called as plant geography which includes the study of classification of plants, their spa­tial distribution, origin and development, dispersal and extinction and functions. Thus, the principle of survival of the fittest becomes effective in the community develop­ment of plants. Image Guidelines 4. It may be remembered that the native vegetation of this region before the European colonization consisted of temperate evergreen forests which were extensively cleared off by the Europeans for agricultural proposes and thus the sclerophyllous shrubs developed in this region at later date as secondary succession of vegeta­tion. Now let's see how to learn fast the concepts associated with hydrosphere. There is great variation in plant species from one region to another region but few plants are common to all sub- kingdoms and regions. I highly recommend you buy both the Notes as the topics covered in one notes are not included in the other. Learning the important concepts is very important for every student to get better marks in examinations. It is obvious that the last succession in the chains of biotic successional changes of vegetation community becomes climax succession. Eucalyptus has been dispersed and distributed by man (deliberately) from Australia to almost every continent. The development of different species of plant community of a given region takes place through the processes of adaptation, competition and natural selection. There is a zonal pattern of vegetation from equator towards the poles and from seal level to vegetation level on the high mountains. The average height of these grass is upto 0.5 m and the colour is yellow-grey. New dense matting of mosses also provides organic matter to the soils and thus the soils are enriched by the addition of organic nutrients. The soil zones are colonized by various micro­organisms which decompose the organic matter and help in the process of energy transfer. (ii) Tall Tussock Grasslands have the main species of Chiomechloa. Thus, the vegetation community upto this stage (sere) is mixed with lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees. The mosses spread over the soils like thin sheets and thus soils are covered by the mosses. Rocky Mountainous Region (RMR); Atlantic – North American Region (ANAR, fig. Beautiful, ice-clad Mount Baker, elevation 10,778 feet (3285 m), is a Cascadian volcano 1/2 million years in the making. Secondary succession refers to the develop­mental sequences of vegetation in those areas which had vegetation cover earlier but now have been ren­dered nude or bare due to destruction of vegetation (either partly or completely) either by natural proc­esses (like lava flow, prolonged drought, glaciation, natural widespread forest fires through lightning, se­vere storms, catastrophic floods etc.) Thus, primary succession of vegetation on a bare rock surface having no prior vegetation and animals starts and is completed through the following stages: (i) The initial plant-free site has relatively dry environment. Under this cultivation, first forest is cleared from small areas through burning and then the soil is cultivated for agricultural crops for a few years. Succession simply means the entire process of directional and sequential change of either plant community (groups of plants adapted to a particular habitat) or the whole ecosystem through time. It does not mean that the climate of this site is dry because the rocks of the concerned site are bare and are devoid of any plant and therefore the environment becomes relatively dry due to excessive evaporation though the climate may be even humid. When the soil loses its fertility, that area is left out and new areas are cleared of vegetation for cultivation. - Contains most of plant nutrients. Introducing Geography: Geography is the study of the evolving character and organization of the Earth’s surface. In other words, the transitional stages of sequential changes from one vegetation com­munity to another vegetation community are called SERE which is complete when the succession of veg­etation community after passing through different phases of changes culminates into equilibrium or mature con­dition. The pioneer plants are established upon the bare rocks of the initial plant-free site. Thus, the present-day veg­etation of New Zealand is of modified type which is still characterized by two types of tussock grasses viz. Genera and family of plants and major vegetation of the aforesaid floral kingdoms and floral provinces or regions. 43.2) as given below: This floristic kingdom includes the plants of whole Australia which is characterized by typical plant species e.g., eucalyptus. There are over 600 species of eucalyptus which greatly vary as regards their general characteristics as they range from tall, giant and shady eucalyptus trees to dwarf and stunted desert eucalyptus trees. Some of the lichens secrete acids which react with the minerals of the rocks of that habitat resulting into dissolution of some minerals. The replacement of one vegetation community in a given habitat by the other vegetation community is called biotic succession. Report a Violation 10. (b) If there are more than one species in the concerned habitat, competition for getting space, sunlight, water and nutrients takes place among the individuals of different species wherein the strongest and most aggressive species establish dominance over the entire vegetation community. This is the most extensive kingdom of all the floral kingdoms. Plant adapt to the extreme humid conditions in the tropical rainforest. Given World History handwritten notes are very important for UPSC, SSC, TET, State level PSC Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 15 Life on the Earth Life on the earth is found almost everywhere. The most outstanding and typical species of the grasses were Tussock Grasses though a few spe­cies of Sedges (plants which grow in water) and dicoty­ledon shrubs were also developed but these original native vegetation have undergone massive modifica­tion and transformation since the colonization of New Zealand by the Europeans. The dispersal of these garden plants became possible when South Africa was colonized by Europe­ans who distributed these garden flowering plants from South Africa to the gardens of other parts of the world. NOTES ON THE "HISTORICAL FACTOR" IN PLANT GEOGRAPHY By Robert E. Woodson, Jr. - Where most plant roots are found. The most important representative plant of this zone is Nothofagus which is also known as Southern Beech. In one of the most stimulating phytogeographic essays of recent years. The vegetation developed during the deflected sere persists so long as the factors responsible for the disturbance remain active. Clements (1916) biotic suc­cession of vegetation community is primarily of two types e.g., primary biotic succession and secondary biotic succession: Primary succession refers to developmental se­quence of vegetation in those bare areas where there were no vegetation and animals earlier. The main species of the coniferous family of gymnosperms are Podcarpaceae, Cupressaceae and Araucariaceae whereas flowering plants are included in Angiosperms of which Nothofagus is the most important plant. Water. Phytogeography is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges (at both large and small scales, see species distribution) to the factors that govern the compositi… Tree trunks – The trunks of the trees are tall so that they can reach sunlight. Hope you have gone through our easy-to-learn notes covering important land features. Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources class 8 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. Taking notes is an efficient way to organise the study material for revision. The vertical stratification of plant community is well developed. : (i) On the basis of habitats as the distribution of terrestrial and aquatic plants, (iii) On the basis of latitudinal and altitudinal extents, and. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Content Guidelines 2. The canopy of these scattered trees is much higher than the stratum of shrubs. Content Filtration 6. The group or association of plants growing together in a particular habitat is called plant commu­nity. : (a) If the plants of the concerned habitat are of the same species, there is competition for the aforesaid elements among the different members of the same species and only the fittest plants survive during the competition. Such competition is called interspecific competition. 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