Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 2919–2923. Our inflammatory and fight or flight systems were built for acute insults. Reduced potency of zinc to interact with NMDA receptors in hippocampal tissue of suicide victims. Correspondence to Emily Deans, M.D., is a psychiatrist with a practice in Massachusetts. Interaction of zinc with antidepressants in the forced swimming test in mice. I appreciate all you do! After reaching the peak ACh current, zinc was added following fluoxetine (a), or fluoxetine was first added following zinc (b). Nowak G, Siwek M, Dudek D, Zieba A, Pilc A . Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México, J García-Colunga, E Vázquez-Gómez & R Miledi, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA, You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Fluoxetine oral capsule is a prescription medication used to treat conditions such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders, and panic attacks. Popik P, Kozela E, Krawczyk M . Zinc supplementation has been shown to have antidepressant effects in humans, and successful treatment with antidepressants will increase serum zinc levels. These effects of fluoxetine were also produced by the combined action of 200 μM zinc with 5 μM imipramine or trimipramine on neuronal α3β4 and α4β4 receptors, as well as on muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs (data not shown), indicating that these effects are characteristic of some antidepressant drugs. Prozac is approved for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), which can overlap with anxiety disorders. Records (a) and (b) were obtained from one oocyte. On the other hand, the fluoxetine block of the zinc-potentiated ACh current was strong (Figure 3c) and the I–V relation was voltage-independent (Figure 3c, ratio), indicating that zinc and fluoxetine in the presence of zinc interact in an external region of the receptor–channel complex. A History of Multi-Parentage. Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil) and other selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs can be affected by taking supplements and can affect your ability to absorb certain vitamins and minerals. García-Colunga J, Awad JN, Miledi R . Psychopharmacol Bull 1991; 27: 503–512. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles The highest amount of zinc in the body is found in our brains, particularly in a part of our brains called the hippocampus. Zinc is known to exert antidepressant-like actions and to make the effects of some antidepressants more efficient in animal models of depression. The ACh current potentiation by zinc was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, whereas the ACh current inhibition by fluoxetine was associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. Palma E, Maggi L, Miledi R, Eusebi F . These differences may be due to the drugs acting on molecular sites, already present on the various subunits that make up the receptors, and possibly also at new sites that may be uncovered by the action of the drugs applied previously. The neuropsychologists in general, in my experience (and in the experience of many, many people with brain injuries whom I have assisted as a disability advocate), usually dismiss any talk of diet/food as having anything to do with healing a brain; they focus, rather, only on the neuropsych eval and cognitive therapy. Article  Dr. Deans, could you write about the issue of low zinc and depression and people who have experienced a brain injury? I have a "mild" brain injury from a car accident, years ago, and "mild" depression has been a long-term issue. Synaptic transmission 100 years after Luigi Luciani. Thank you for visiting nature.com. Furthermore, our results show that the behavior of nAChRs differs, depending on when these two substances reach the receptors. SSRI medications are the most commonly used class of antidepressants, which unfortunately have their fair share of drug interactions.As such, finding over the counter medication to treat cold and flu symptoms can sometimes be tricky when taking an SSRI such as Prozac. Article  Subunit-dependent modulation of neuronal nicotinic receptors by zinc. How do those of us living with a brain injury - and living with mild depression - work to fix the imbalances? García-Colunga J, Miledi R . And yes, there is more…stress depletes magnesium – so when people suffer from depression and anxiety OR agitated depression where the adrenals are overworked – Magnesium is deficient – Prozac … Frederickson CJ, Suh SW, Silva D, Frederickson CJ, Thompson RB . volume 4, pages388–393(2004)Cite this article. It really comforts me to know that there are medical professionals out there still searching for answers that go beyond writing prescriptions (although I realize prescriptions are very helpful to many people). If we want to get down to the super nitty gritty, we can examine the role of zinc in the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain central to memory and mood. That last bit of information … Kroczka B, Branski P, Palucha A, Pilc A, Nowak G . Nature 1984; 308: 734–736. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 2041–2044. Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. This same mechanism is thought (in acute vs chronic and in differing areas of the brain) to be responsible for seizures, migraines, dementia, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder (and is why pharmaceutical GABA receptor modulators, such as valium and anti-seizure medicines, can be effective for certain symptoms of any of those conditions). Antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by inhibitors of monoamine uptake. Vertical lines (a–e) show membrane currents induced by 2 s voltage-ramps (–120–40 mV). Nicotinic receptor subtypes and cognitive function. It is known that zinc increases the antidepressant effects of imipramine and citalopram on animal models of depression,32, 40 and increases also the efficacy of antidepressant therapy in humans.33 Our results show that zinc increases the inhibitory action of fluoxetine on ACh-activated neuronal α4β4 and muscle α1β1γδ receptors. What could those be? Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by zinc. Effects of Zn2+ on wild and mutant neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors. At the same time, the inhibitory (in this case, neuroprotective) neurotransmitter GABA is decreased, along with BDNF and another nerve growth factor, NGF. Even common vitamins and herbs can create problems … Unfortunately, this is way over my head and I can only find that one article showing a measly correlation. The entire time I read this article I looked for you to list some foods high in zinc. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999; 67: 85–92. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as targets for antidepressants. (c) I–V relationships for the zinc-potentiated ACh current (Zn2+: c–a), as in (b) and for the ACh current inhibited by fluoxetine in the presence of zinc (fluoxetine: e–a), and the ratio between the two relationships. Effects of serotonergic agents on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. There was one researcher who was convinced pyroluria was the end all and be all of depression, chronic fatigue, etc. Zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency might occur in people with severe diarrhea, conditions that make it hard for the bowel to absorb food, liver cirrhosis, and alcoholism.It may also occur after major surgery and during long-term use of tube feeding in the hospital.Taking zinc by mouth or giving zinc intravenously (by IV) helps to restore zinc levels in people who are zinc … The extracellular concentration of zinc (∼300 μM) that is reached in the central nervous system, during co-release with glutamate,25 is sufficient to positively modulate presynaptic nAChRs, which may be located in the same terminals from which zinc is released.36 Moreover, the plasma concentration of fluoxetine during effective clinical treatment (∼1 μM)37 and the concentration in the brain relative to that in the plasma (20 : 1)38 make it very likely that during the treatment of mental depression fluoxetine is exerting a marked inhibiting action on nAChRs. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have antidepressant effects in humans, and successful treatment with antidepressants will increase serum zinc levels. Therefore, a study was made of the modulation of neuronal α4β4 and muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs, expressing in oocytes, by the combined action of zinc and fluoxetine. Harrison NL, Gibbons SJ . In contrast, when 5 μM fluoxetine was added (Figure 1b, a), the ACh current was decreased to 30.7±4.5% (n=4). For example, if nAChRs are already interacting with zinc, fluoxetine exerts a stronger nAChR inhibition than in the absence of zinc. What does zinc have to do with depression? 300 or more enzymes in our bodies use zinc as a buddy to help them do their thing, making DNA, protein synthesis, cell division, all hugely important stuff. Fluoxetine, often sold under the brand name Prozac, is an antidepressant medication commonly prescribed for depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder 1.Although the medication can … Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S . Serotonergic modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. So, Prozac is particularly good if you have a tendency towards obsessive or intrusive thoughts. While beans and grains also contain zinc depending on the soils in which they are grown, phytates in grains, legumes, and nuts can interfere with its absorption. #1 Prozac and Alcohol. Hsiao B, Dweck D, Luetje CW . But the zinc-replete massive meat-eaters can get depression, diabetes, and all the Western diaspora of chronic disease, of course. Co-application of zinc and fluoxetine on muscle nAChRs. Do you think this finding was a fluke, or do you have an idea why this might be? I came across an abstract to a study (http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/79/2/218.short) in which male adolescent marijuana users were shown to have lower zinc levels. It turns out that zinc plays a part in modulating the brain and body’s response to stress all along the way. These receptors respond to glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter that can be responsible for toxic effects in the brain if there is too much. All the I–V relations showed that the equilibrium potential remained unaltered (ca. García-Colunga J, González-Herrera M, Miledi R . Hennings ECP, Kiss JP, De Oliveira K, Toth PT, Vizi ES . López-Valdés H, García-Colunga J . To obtain and JavaScript. Thank you for all the research and writing which you do in the psychology & paleo diet fields, as well as your search to assist those with depression. Goodnick PJ . NeuroReport 2002; 13: 1097–1106. He would like to quit and has tried many times unsuccessfully. (2013), The Pharmacogenomics Journal Pol J Pharmacol 2002; 54: 587–592. The central findings of this study are that, at relatively low concentrations, zinc potentiates and fluoxetine inhibits the action of ACh on both neuronal and muscle nAChRs, and that the presence of fluoxetine greatly reduces, or abolishes, the potentiating action of zinc. We more or less follow the paleo diet, but I have tried to research a bit on nutritional supplements that might be helpful. Find a therapist to overcome depression or anxiety, Build a Better Brain for Better Mental Health, Gut Bacteria Can Influence Your Mood, Thoughts, and Brain, Surprising Ways that Stress Affects Your Brain and Immunity. J Neurosci Res 1993; 34: 562–570. To rephrase, zinc is a cog in the machine in pretty much every signal and second messenger system you might have learned about in molecular biology classes. Assaf SY, Chung SH . Grassi F, Polenzani L, Mileo AM, Caratsch CG, Eusebi F, Miledi R . Extra zinc might help. Many months later after going off of Prozac … Under conditions of major stress, we tend to get rid of zinc like gangbusters in our urine, sweat, and saliva. The medications used were mostly selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRI’s such as Prozac, Paxil, Lexapro, and others). PROZINC is a protamine zinc insulin -- ideal for diabetic cats -- with a convenient duration of 10-14 hours. Additionally, in animal models of depression, ineffective doses of antidepressants become effective by co-administration with very low doses of zinc.32, 40 Alternatively, if nAChRs are already interacting with fluoxetine and the concentration of zinc then increases, due to the antidepressant treatment itself,30, 39 zinc fails to exert its potentiating action; presumably because of the marked inhibition of nAChRs by fluoxetine. The T cells in our immune system, which hunt and kill infection, don’t work well without zinc and also release more calls for help (leading to more inflammation, via IL-6 and IL-1) in the case of zinc deficiency. When the insults are chronic (unalleviated stress, gallons of inflammatory-promoting omega-6 fatty acids, weird glutens and lectins, chronic depression-causing viral infections such as herpes, HIV, or Epstein Barr), the whole system becomes dysregulated. CAS  and, perhaps, a "leaky brain barrier," too. Thanks! Interactions. García-Colunga J, Miledi R . What should be up is down. However, each type of antidepressant has its own specific dietary contraindications. Can Treatment Resistant Depression Be Successfully Treated? You should not use Prozac if you are allergic to fluoxetine, if you also take pimozide or thioridazine. 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